Studying mathematics for the sake of mathematics, formulation of conjectures to model real life situations and indeed the application of mathematical knowledge has helped to improve insight about nature.
The advances in pure mathematics, natural sciences, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences has lead to the formulation of more practical problems requiring practical solutions. Some of these needed solutions however pose a great strain on the human numerical capacity, hence the need for calculators.
Antiquity supplied itself with a means to eliminate this strain on the human numerical capacity and indeed eliminate error in calculations. The first calculators were recognized as mere counting materials and devices; they were stones, pebbles, bones and the abacus.
It was not until the 17th century that the term calculating machine or mechanical calculator became widespread. Wilhelm Schickard built the earliest modern attempt at a mechanical calculator. His mechanical calculator comprised Abacus made of Napier bones which performed multiplication and division operations and a dialed pedometer which performed addition and subtraction operations. However, he was not very successful.
Underwater research has provided guidance and opportunities for original researches to be conducted in the field of subtidal marine ecology. The research has been devoted particularly to the physiological process and limits of breathing gas under pressure, for aquanaut and astronaut training as well as for research on marine ecology.
Water quality index (WQI) is a means by which water quality data is summarized for reporting to the public in a consistent manner. It is similar to UV index or air quality index. Water quality index, as an area of activity under underwater research, is a 100-point scale that summarizes results from a total of nine different measurements when complete. These nice factors which includes:- dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, PH, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature change, total phosphate, nitrates, turbidity and total solids, are chosen and some judged more important than the other, after which a weighted mean is used to combine the values.
The updated calculator used for this computation allows one to enter the longitude and latitude for the site under consideration or pick location from a Google earth map. The calculator completes the individual and group calculations of the aforementioned factors under consideration and permits one to generate a customized report.
The water quality index has a legend for grading range of values gotten at the final stage of each computation, which suggests the state of water falling between each range. The six widely used legends are excellent, very good, good, fair, marginal and poor.