How can Calculators be More Efficient to Users?

Studying mathematics for the sake of mathematics, formulation of conjectures to model real life situations and indeed the application of mathematical knowledge has helped to improve insight about nature.

The advances in pure mathematics, natural sciences, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences has lead to the formulation of more practical problems requiring practical solutions. Some of these needed solutions however pose a great strain on the human numerical capacity, hence the need for calculators.

Antiquity supplied itself with a means to eliminate this strain on the human numerical capacity and indeed eliminate error in calculations. The first calculators were recognized as mere counting materials and devices; they were stones, pebbles, bones and the abacus.

It was not until the 17th century that the term calculating machine or mechanical calculator became widespread. Wilhelm Schickard built the earliest modern attempt at a mechanical calculator. His mechanical calculator comprised Abacus made of Napier bones which performed multiplication and division operations and a dialed pedometer which performed addition and subtraction operations. However, he was not very successful.

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The Use of Calculators in Underwater Research | Water Quality Index

Underwater research has provided guidance and opportunities for original researches to be conducted in the field of subtidal marine ecology. The research has been devoted particularly to the physiological process and limits of breathing gas under pressure, for aquanaut and astronaut training as well as for research on marine ecology.

Water quality index (WQI) is a means by which water quality data is summarized for reporting to the public in a consistent manner. It is similar to UV index or air quality index. Water quality index, as an area of activity under underwater research, is a 100-point scale that summarizes results from a total of nine different measurements when complete. These nice factors which includes:- dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, PH, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature change, total phosphate, nitrates, turbidity and total solids, are chosen and some judged more important than the other, after which a weighted mean is used to combine the values.

The updated calculator used for this computation allows one to enter the longitude and latitude for the site under consideration or pick location from a Google earth map. The calculator completes the individual and group calculations of the aforementioned factors under consideration and permits one to generate a customized report.
The water quality index has a legend for grading range of values gotten at the final stage of each computation, which suggests the state of water falling between each range. The six widely used legends are excellent, very good, good, fair, marginal and poor.

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The Effect of Financial Calculations in the Nigerian Economy

It is true that tiny drops of water can make an ocean but time interval at which it drops and its consistency are the keys. No child becomes an adult within the space of one year. It takes several years of growth and development for that dream to become an obvious reality. One is not left in the dark on the effect of financial calculations in the economy except they’ve chosen to be intentionally blind to its truth.

The economy of a nation or a person can be affected in no small way by certain financial calculations like taxes,charges etc both positively and negatively depending on who receives and who gives. A nation involved in international trade have the responsibility of paying certain levies saddled on her shoulder, some of which might be too high and could possibly devalue her currency.

Business owners also owe it to certain government bodies to pay taxes at a fixed rate which might possibly increase with the fleeting of years and takes no consideration of the woes and fortunes of the business owner per time. Though it is a decent source of fund that can be cruel to those it is being sourced from,revenues are being generated when these funds are invested in certain sectors that have been known for wholesale delivery of bountiful returns,which in turn can serve as a means of giving back to the society and people who labour to make policies, enforce and carry it out in different strata of the working sector.

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The Importance of STEM (Science, Technological, Engineering and Mathematics) in Nigeria

Every new development, be it positive or negative has its importance and disadvantages as well. Its importance gives it a penetration advantage to be valued and appreciated in spite of its disadvantages. Just like the reality of sickness created opportunities for doctors to be valued and appreciated in their sphere of influence for saving lives, Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics have not done any less. Not only does it create opportunities, it also suggests ways those opportunities can be harnessed.


In our present age of growing advancement, the importance of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) cannot be overemphasized as its relevance finds expression in our day to day activities as humans ranging from the alarm clocks that greet us in the morning, the alarm bells that alerts us of a visitor, the automobiles that convey us to our places of work and the stair lifts that finally lands us on the floor of our offices. Its importance is not only appreciated in the industries, roads and all other obvious infrastructure where it is easily spotted but has also been domesticated such that some equipment used in the preparation of sumptuous meals owe its allegiance to them.

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