How to Calculate and Solve for Depreciation Value | Declining Balance Method | Depreciation

The image above represents depreciation value.

To compute for depreciation value, three essential parameters are needed and these are Present Amount or Worth (P), Rate of Depreciation (α) and Number of Years of the Asset (t).

The formula for calculating depreciation value:

D = Pα(1 – α)(t – 1)

Where:

D = Depreciation Value
P = Present worth or amount
t = Number of years of the asset
α = rate of depreciation

Let’s solve an example;
Find the depreciation value when the present amount or worth is 14, the rate of depreciation is 2 and the number of years of the asset is 10.

This implies that;

P = Present worth or amount = 14
t = Number of years of the asset = 10
α = rate of depreciation = 2

D = Pα(1 – α)(t – 1)
D = 14(2)(1 – 2)(10 – 1)
D = 14(2)(-1)9
D = 14(2)(-1)
D = -28

Therefore, the depreciation value is ₦ -28.

Calculating the Present Amount or Worth when the Depreciation Value, the Rate of Depreciation and the Number of Years of the Asset is Given.

P = D / α (1 – α)(t – 1)

Where;

P = Present worth or amount
D = Depreciation Value
t = Number of years of the asset
α = rate of depreciation

Let’s solve an example;
Find the present amount or worth when the depreciation value is 40, the rate of depreciation is 10 and the number of years of the asset is 9.

This implies that;

D = Depreciation Value = 40
t = Number of years of the asset = 9
α = rate of depreciation = 10

P = D / α (1 – α)(t – 1)
P = 40 / 10 (1 – 10)(9 – 1)
P = 40 / 10 (- 9)(8)
P = 40 / 10 (- 43046721)
P = 40 / – 430467210
P = 9.29e-8

Therefore, the present amount or worth is 9.29e-8.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Depreciation Value | Declining Balance Method | Depreciation

How to Calculate and Solve for Book Value | Declining Balance Method | Depreciation

The image above represents book value.

To compute for book value, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Present Amount or Worth (P), Rate of Depreciation (α) and Number of Years of the Asset (t).

The formula for calculating book value:

B = P(1 – α)t

Where:

B = Book value of an asset
P = Present worth or amount
α = rate of depreciation
t = Number of years of the asset

Let’s solve an example;
Find the book value when the present amount or worth is 8, the rate of depreciation is 18 and the number of years of the asset is 10.

This implies that;

P = Present worth or amount = 8
α = rate of depreciation = 18
t = Number of years of the asset = 10

B = P(1 – α)t
B = 8(1 – 18)10
B = 8(-17)10
B = 8 x 201
B = 1612

Therefore, the book value is ₦1612.

Calculating the Present Amount or Worth when the Book Value, the Rate of Depreciation and the Number of Years of the Asset is Given.

P = B / (1 – α)t

Where;

P = Present worth or amount
B = Book value of an asset
α = rate of depreciation
t = Number of years of the asset

Let’s solve an example;
Find the present amount or worth when the book value is 32, the rate of depreciation is 16 and the number of years of the asset is 10.

This implies that;

B = Book value of an asset = 32
α = rate of depreciation = 16
t = Number of years of the asset = 10

P = B / (1 – α)t
P = 32 / (1 – 16)10
P = 32 / (- 15)10
P = 32 / 5766
P = 0.00554

Therefore, the present amount or worth is 0.00554.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Book Value | Declining Balance Method | Depreciation

How to Calculate and Solve for Depreciation Value | Straight line Method | Depreciation

The image above represents depreciation value.

To compute for depreciation value, three essential value are needed and these parameters are Present Amount or Worth (P), Salvage Value (S) and Total Estimated Life of the Asset (N).

The formula for calculating depreciation value:

D = (P – S) / N

Where:

P = Present worth or amount
N = Total estimated life of an asset
S = Salvage value

Let’s solve an example;
Find the depreciation value when the present amount or worth is 9, the salvage value is 4 and the total estimated life of an asset is 10.

This implies that;

P = Present worth or amount = 9
N = Total estimated life of an asset = 10
S = Salvage value = 4

D = (P – S) / N
D = (9 – 4) / 10
D = 5 / 10
D = 0.5

Therefore, the depreciation value is ₦0.5.

Calculating the Present Amount or Worth when the Depreciation Value, the Total Estimated life of an Asset and the Salvage Value is Given.

P = (D x N) + S

Where;

P = Present worth or amount
D = Depreciation Value
N = Total estimated life of an asset
S = Salvage value

Let’s solve an example;
Find the present amount or worth when the depreciation value is 22, the total estimated life of an asset is 12 and the salvage value is 8.

This implies that;

D = Depreciation Value = 22
N = Total estimated life of an asset = 12
S = Salvage value = 8

P = (D x N) + S
P = (22 x 12) + 8
P = 264 + 8
P = 272

Therefore, the present amount or worth is 272.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Depreciation Value | Straight line Method | Depreciation

How to Calculate and Solve for Book Value | Straight line Method | Depreciation.

The image above represents book value.

To compute for book value, four essential parameters are needed and these  parameters are present amount or worth (P), salvage value (S), total estimated life of the asset (N) and number of years of the asset (t).

The formula for calculating book value:

B = P – ((P – S)t / N)

Where;

B = Book value over a period of time
P = Present amount or worth
S = Salvage value
N = Total estimated life of an asset
t = Number of years of the asset

Let’s solve an example;
Find the book value when the present amount or worth is 12, the salvage value is 10, total estimated life of an asset is 8 and the number of years of the asset is 14.

This implies that;

P = Present amount or worth = 12
S = Salvage value = 10
N = Total estimated life of an asset = 8
t = Number of years of the asset = 14

B = P – ((P – S)t / N)
B = 12 – ((12 – 10)14 / 8)
B = 12 – ((2)14 / 8)
B = 12 – (28 / 8)
B = 12 – 3.5
B = 8.5

Therefore, the book value is ₦8.5

Calculating the Present Amount or Worth when the Book Value, the Salvage Value, the Total Estimated Life of the Asset and the Number of years of the Asset is Given.

P = – (B x N / t) – S

Where;

P = Present amount or worth
B = Book value over a period of time
S = Salvage value
N = Total estimated life of an asset
t = Number of years of the asset

Let’s solve an example;
Find the present amount or worth when the book value is 20, the salvage value is 10, the total estimated life of an asset is 5 and the number of years of the asset is 9.

This implies that;

B = Book value over a period of time = 20
S = Salvage value = 10
N = Total estimated life of an asset = 5
t = Number of years of the asset = 9

P = – (B x N / t) – S
P = – (20 x 5 / 9) – 10
P = – (100 / 9) – 10
P = – 11.11 – 10
P = 1.11

Therefore, the present amount or worth is 1.11.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Book Value | Straight line Method | Depreciation.

How to Calculate and Solve for Total Cross-Sectional Area of Gates | Design of Gating System

The image above represents total cross-sectional area of gates.

To compute for total cross-sectional area of gates, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Mass of the Casting (G), Specific Speed of Pouring (Ks) and Time of Pouring (t).

The formula for calculating total cross-sectional area of gates:

Fs = G / tKs

Where:

Fs = Total Cross-Sectional Area of Gates
G = Mass of the Casting
Ks = Specific Speed Of Pouring
t = Time of Pouring

Let’s solve an example;
Find the total cross-sectional area of gates when the mass of the casting is 10, specific speed of pouring is 18 and the time of pouring is 9.

This implies that;

G = Mass of the Casting = 10
Ks = Specific Speed Of Pouring = 18
t = Time of Pouring = 9

Fs = G / tKs
Fs = 10 / 9 x 18
Fs = 10 / 162
Fs = 0.0617

Therefore, the total cross-sectional area of gates is 0.0617 m2.

Calculating the Mass of the Casting when the Total Cross-Sectional Area of Gates, Specific Speed of Pouring and the Time of Pouring is Given.

G = Fs x tKs

Where:

G = Mass of the Casting
Fs = Total Cross-Sectional Area of Gates
Ks = Specific Speed Of Pouring
t = Time of Pouring

Let’s solve an example;
Find the mass of the casting when the total cross-sectional area of gates is 15, the specific speed of pouring is 7 and the time of pouring is 5.

This implies that;

Fs = Total Cross-Sectional Area of Gates = 15
Ks = Specific Speed Of Pouring = 7
t = Time of Pouring = 5

G = Fs x tKs
G = 15 x 5(7)
G = 15 x 35
G = 525

Therefore, the mass of the casting is 525 m.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Total Cross-Sectional Area of Gates | Design of Gating System

How to Calculate and Solve for Volume Ratio | Design of Gating System

The image above represents volume ratio.

To compute for volume ratio, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Mass of the Liquid Metal filling the Mould Cavity, Gates and Risers (G) and Casting Volume (V).

The formula for calculating volume ratio:

Kv = G / V

Where:

Kv = Volume Ratio
G = Mass of the Liquid Metal Filling the Mould Cavity,Gates and Risers
V = Casting Volume

Let’s solve an example;
Find the volume ratio when the mass of the liquid metal filling the mould cavity, gates and risers is 12 and the casting volume is 24.

This implies that;

G = Mass of the Liquid Metal Filling the Mould Cavity,Gates and Risers = 12
V = Casting Volume  = 24

Kv = G / V
Kv = 12 / 24
Kv = 0.5

Therefore, the volume ratio is 0.5.

Calculating the Mass of the Liquid Metal Filling the Mould Cavity, Gates and Risers when the Volume Ratio and the Casting Volume is Given.

G = Kv x V

Where;

G = Mass of the Liquid Metal Filling the Mould Cavity,Gates and Risers
Kv = Volume Ratio
V = Casting Volume

Let’s solve an example;
Find the mass of the liquid metal filling the mould cavity, gates and risers when the volume ratio is 15 and the casting volume is 10.

This implies that;

Kv = Volume Ratio = 15
V = Casting Volume = 10

G = Kv x V
G = 15 x 10
G = 150

Therefore, the mass of the liquid metal filling the mould cavity,gates and risers is 150.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Volume Ratio | Design of Gating System

How to Calculate and Solve for Co-efficient allowing for Friction | Design of Gating System

The image above represents co-efficient allowing for friction.

To compute for co-efficient allowing for friction, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Friction Co-efficient of the Gating System (μ1) and Friction Co-efficient of the Mould (μ2).

The formula for calculating co-efficient allowing for friction:

μ = μ1 x μ2

Where:

μ = Co-efficient allowing for Friction
μ1 = Friction Co-efficient of the Gating System
μ2 = Friction Co-efficient of the Mould

Let’s solve an example;
Find the co-efficient allowing for friction when the friction co-efficient of the gating system is 10 and the friction co-efficient of the mould is 14.

This implies that;

μ1 = Friction Co-efficient of the Gating System = 10
μ2 = Friction Co-efficient of the Mould = 14

μ = μ1 x μ2
μ = 10 x 14
μ = 140

Therefore, the co-efficient allowing for friction is 140.

Calculating the Friction Co-efficient of the Gating System when the Co-efficient Allowing for Friction and the Friction Co-efficient of the Mould is Given.

μ1 = μ / μ2

Where;

μ1 = Friction Co-efficient of the Gating System
μ = Co-efficient allowing for Friction
μ2 = Friction Co-efficient of the Mould

Let’s solve an example;
Find the friction co-efficient of the gating system when the co-efficient allowing for friction is 45 and the friction co-efficient of the mould is 15.

This implies that;

μ = Co-efficient allowing for Friction – 45
μ2 = Friction Co-efficient of the Mould = 15

μ1 = μ / μ2
μ1 = 45 / 15
μ1 = 3

Therefore, the friction co-efficient of the gating system is 3.

Calculating the Friction Co-efficient of the Mould when the Co-efficient Allowing for Friction and the Friction Co-efficient of the Gating System is Given.

μ2 = μ / μ1

Where;

μ2 = Friction Co-efficient of the Mould
μ = Co-efficient allowing for Friction
μ1 = Friction Co-efficient of the Gating System

Let’s solve an example;
Find the friction co-efficient of the mould when the co-efficient allowing for friction is 50 and the friction co-efficient of the gating system is 25.

This implies that;

μ = Co-efficient allowing for Friction = 50
μ1 = Friction Co-efficient of the Gating System = 25

μ2 = μ / μ1
μ2 = 50 / 25
μ2 = 2

Therefore, the friction co-efficient of the mould is 2.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Co-efficient allowing for Friction | Design of Gating System