# History and Evolution of Calculators

How long have we, as a species, needed to count and calculate numbers? Probably as long as our species has existed. So, how did we do it back then? Well, letâ€™s take a trip down memory lane to the history and evolution of calculators.

Here, we will take a rather brief look at how the art of calculating has evolved over the years. We’ll discuss the journey from fingers and pebbles to advanced computers that can perform complex calculations in split seconds. Fingers and pebbles? Well, that has to be the earliest way anyone ever calculated anything.

### Abacus, Napier’s Bones, Slide Rule, and Pascal’s Calculator

However, the history of calculators – and by this term, I do refer to any equipment or machine that makes it easier and faster to perform rather complex calculations – really begins somewhere around 2,500 to 2,000 BCE with the invention of the Abacus, which was first used in Sumeria (now Iraq) and Egypt. It was a wooden frame with slide-able beads on horizontal rods.

Several centuries later, in the 17th century, Napierâ€™s Bones was invented. The bones were thin rods inscribed with multiplication tables. When the vertical alignment of the rods is adjusted, the user can read off his multiplication totals horizontally.

Napierâ€™s bones and the abacus remained in accountants’ offices until the 19th century, despite other calculating inventions coming up. It was in the same 17th century that the slide rule was invented. It consisted of a sliding stick that could perform rapid multiplications by using logarithmic scales. And it stuck around even up to the 1980â€™s as it was a pocket-size calculating device.

Blaise Pascal also invented Pascalâ€™s Calculator in 1642. The first of its kind, it was a device that performed all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence. It used geared wheels, was considered truly ingenious but were difficult to produce and so only a few were ever made.

### The History of the Arithmometer Calculators

Then, in 1850, Thomas de Colmar launched the four-function Arithmometer, the first mechanical calculator that was considered robust enough for everyday use. His invention was followed by a proliferation of mechanical calculating machines that could perform all four arithmetic operations quickly and accurately. The biggest issue with all these devices was that they were usually large and heavy.

#### Curta Calculator

This size problem was solved with Curta Calculator‘s inventionÂ in 1948 by Curt Herzstark. It was a work of staggering ingenuity at the time, small enough to be held in the hand, able to perform all four arithmetic calculations quickly and accurately and some models could display 15-digit answers (a truly remarkable feet then, considering that an iPhone 6 Plus displays 16-digit answers in scientific mode!). It was the best and the last of the mechanical calculators.

### ENIAC’s Role in Shaping the History and Evolution of Calculators

As electronics began to take over, several types of calculators were developed, starting with ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integrator And Computer) in 1946, which was a thousand times faster than electro-mechanical computers but used almost 18,000 vacuum tubes, filled a large room, and used as much power as a small town.

As vacuum tubes gave way to thermionic valves, then to solid-state transistors, and finally to microchips, electronic calculators continued to be invented from the 1960â€™s through the 1970s. Each new product aimed to better the previous ones in terms of size, power consumption, processing ability, and cost. By 1980, pocket calculators had become compact in form. Powered by solar cells or button batteries, these calculators had a wide variety of functions and were very cheap.

The 1980s saw the advent of industry-specific calculators tailored to their respective industries’ needs and could perform more advanced and complicated calculations. By the 1990s, along with the prevalence of PCs and laptops, came mobile phones which had calculator functions programmed into them.

Phones have gotten smarter ever since, and calculators have always been a part of mobile phones. On todayâ€™s smartphones, one can even get some of those highly specialized types of calculators as just an app on the phone. Despite this proliferation of smartphones with calculators, the â€˜dumbâ€™ calculator has not lost its relevance as it is still the choice of people who have to work with a lot of numbers daily and is the only type of computer allowed in most exam halls around the world.’

### The Nickzom Calculator

Nickzom Calculator is also one of the best calculators in the world today and has also contributed to the history and evolution of these machines. It can perform a myriad of functions, each contributing to its versatility and indispensability in various domains. From the most basic arithmetic operations to advanced scientific calculations, the Nickzom Calculator ensures precision and accuracy in every computation.

### Master Every Calculation Instantly

Unlock solutions for every math, physics, engineering, and chemistry problem with step-by-step clarity. No internet required. Just knowledge at your fingertips, anytime, anywhere.

With its intuitive interface and robust capabilities, Nickzom Calculator excels in handling complex mathematical tasks with ease. Whether it’s solving equations related to elasticity and gas laws in physics or conducting financial calculations for budgeting and investment planning, Nickzom provides the tools necessary for efficient and reliable results.

Moreover, the Nickzom Calculator goes beyond mere number crunching. It offers comprehensive unit conversion features, simplifying the process of converting between different measurement systems and currencies. This makes it an invaluable tool for individuals and businesses operating in a globalized world.

Furthermore, the Nickzom Calculator facilitates data visualization and analysis through its graph plotting capabilities. Users can effortlessly plot mathematical functions and analyze their behavior, enabling informed decision-making in various fields.

In reproductive health, the Nickzom Calculator plays a crucial role in ovulation tracking and fertility prediction. By accurately calculating ovulation cycles and predicting fertile windows, Nickzom empowers individuals with valuable insights into their reproductive health journey.

#### Enjoy the Nickzom Calculator

Want to explore the power of Nickzom? Here’s how to get the calculator:

Apple (iTunes – Paid) –Â https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8