How to Calculate and Solve for Standing Bubble Point | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents standing bubble point.

To compute for the standing bubble point, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Specific Gravity of Solution Gas (γg), Bubble Point Pressure (Pb) and Standing Bubble Point Parameter (a).

The formula for calculating the standing bubble point:

Rs = 18.2[((Pb / γg)0.83 x 10a) – 1.4]

Where:

Rs = Standing Bubble Point
γg = Specific Gravity of Solution Gas
Pb = Bubble Point Pressure
a = Standing Bubble Point Parameter

Let’s solve an example;
Find the standing bubble point with a specific gravity of solution gas of 24, bubble point pressure of 70 and standing bubble point parameter of 45.

This implies that;

γg = Specific Gravity of Solution Gas = 24
Pb = Bubble Point Pressure = 70
a = Standing Bubble Point Parameter = 45

Rs = 18.2[((Pb / γg)0.83 x 10a) – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[((70 / 24)0.83 x 1045) – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[((2.916)0.83 x 1045) – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[(2.43 x 1045) – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[2.431e+45 – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[2.431e+45]
Rs = 4.425e+46

Therefore, the standing bubble point is 4.425e+46.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Standing Bubble Point | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Glass Gas Solubility Parameter in a Fluid | Nickzom Calculator

The image above represents glass gas solubility parameter.

To compute for the glass gas solubility parameter, one essential parameter is needed and the parameter is Pressure (P).

The formula for calculating the glass gas solubility parameter:

x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 3.3093logP]0.5

Where:

x = Glass Gas Solubility Parameter, x
P = Pressure

Let’s solve an example;
Find the glass gas solubility parameter when the pressure is 62.

This implies that;

x = Glass Gas Solubility Parameter, x = 62

x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 3.3093logP]0.5
x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 3.3093log(62)]0.5
x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 3.3093(1.79)]0.5
x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 5.93]0.5
x = 2.8869 – [8.249]0.5
x = 2.8869 – 2.87
x = 0.0146

Therefore, the Glass Gas Solubility Parameter is 0.0146.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Glass Gas Solubility Parameter in a Fluid | Nickzom Calculator

How to Solve and Calculate for a Dimensionless Pressure Drop, Oil Rate, Oil FVF, Oil Viscosity in Well Testing | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents dimensionless pressure drop.

To compute for the dimensionless pressure drop, five essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Permeability-Thickness Product (kh), Pressure Drop (ΔP), Oil Rate (Qo), Oil Viscosity (μo) and Oil FVF (Bo).

The formula for calculating dimensionless pressure drop:

PD = khΔP / 141.2QoBoμo

Where;

PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop
kH = Permeability-Thickness Product
ΔP = Pressure Drop
Qo = Oil Rate
μo = Oil Viscosity
Bo = Oil FVF

Let’s solve an example;
Find the dimensionless pressure drop with a permeability-thickness product of 70, a pressure drop of 30, an oil rate of 49, an oil viscosity of 19 and oil FVF of 31.

This implies that;

kh = Permeability-Thickness Product = 20
ΔP = Pressure Drop = 30
Qo = Oil Rate = 49
μo = Oil Viscosity = 19
Bo = Oil FVF = 31

PD = khΔP / 141.2QoBoμo
PD = 20 x 30/141.2 x 49 x 31 x 19
PD = 20 x 30/4075173.19
PD = 600/4075173.19
PD = 0.000147

Therefore, the dimensionless pressure drop is 0.000147 psi.

Calculating the Permeability-Thickness Product when Dimensionless Pressure Drop, Pressure Drop, Oil Rate, Oil Viscosity and Oil FVF.

kh = PD x 141.2QoBoμo / ΔP

Where;

kh = Permeability-Thickness Product
PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop
ΔP = Pressure Drop
Qo = Oil Rate
μo = Oil Viscosity
Bo = Oil FVF

Let’s solve an example;
Find the permeability-thickness product with a dimensionless pressure drop of 28, a pressure drop of 16, an oil rate of 21, an oil viscosity of 18 and oil FVF of 24 .

This implies that;

PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop = 28
ΔP = Pressure Drop =16
Qo = Oil Rate = 21
μo = Oil Viscosity = 18
Bo = Oil FVF = 24

kh = PD x 141.2QoBoμo / ΔP
kh = 28 x 141.2 x 21 x 24 x 18 / 16
kh = 35867059.8 / 16
kh = 2241691.2

Therefore, the permeability-thickness product is 2241691.2.

Calculating the Pressure Drop when Dimensionless Pressure Drop, Permeability-Thickness Product, Oil Rate, Oil Viscosity and Oil FVF.

ΔP = PD x 141.2QoBoμo / kh

Where;

ΔP = Pressure Drop
PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop
kh = Permeability-Thickness Product
Qo = Oil Rate
μo = Oil Viscosity
Bo = Oil FVF

Let’s solve an example;
Find the pressure drop with a dimensionless pressure drop of 38, a permeability-thickness product of 24, an oil rate of 11, an oil viscosity of 8 and oil FVF of 12.

This implies that;

PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop = 38
kh = Permeability-Thickness Product = 24
Qo = Oil Rate = 11
μo = Oil Viscosity = 8
Bo = Oil FVF = 12

ΔP = PD x 141.2QoBoμo / kh
ΔP = 38 x 141.2 x 11 x 12 x 8 / 24
ΔP = 5666073.6 / 24
ΔP = 236086.4

Therefore, the pressure drop is 236086.4.

Continue reading How to Solve and Calculate for a Dimensionless Pressure Drop, Oil Rate, Oil FVF, Oil Viscosity in Well Testing | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Gas Formation Volume Factor (FVF) | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents the gas FVF.

To compute for the gas FVF, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Z-Factor (Z), Temperature (T) and Pressure (P).

The formula for calculating the gas FVF:

Bg = 0.00504[ZT / P]

Where;

Bg = Gas FVF
Z = Z-Factor
T = (°R) Temperature
P = Pressure

Let’s solve an example;
Find the Gas FVF when the Z-Factor is 12, temperature is 30 and the pressure is 120.

This implies that;

Z = Z-Factor = 12
T = (°R) Temperature = 30
P = Pressure = 120

Bg = 0.00504[ZT / P]
Bg = 0.00504[12 x 30 / 120]
Bg = 0.00504[360 / 120]
Bg = 0.00504[3]
Bg = 0.01512

Therefore, the gas FVF is 0.01512 bbl / scf.

Calculating for the Z-Factor when the Gas FVF, Temperature and Pressure is Given.

Z = Bg.P / 0.00504T

Where;

Z = Z-Factor
Bg = Gas FVF
T = (°R) Temperature
P = Pressure

Let’s solve an example;
Find the Z-Factor when the Gas FVF is 22, temperature is 16 and the pressure is 80.

This implies that;

Bg = Gas FVF = 22
T = (°R) Temperature = 16
P = Pressure = 80

Z = Bg.P / 0.00504T
Z = 22 x 80 / 0.00504 x 16
Z = 1760 / 0.08064
Z = 21825.39

Therefore, the Z-Factor is 21825.39.

Calculating for the Temperature when the Gas FVF, Z-Factor and the Pressure is Given.

T = Bg.P / 0.00504Z

Where;

T = (°R) Temperature
Z = Z-Factor
Bg = Gas FVF
P = Pressure

Let’s solve an example;
Find the Temperature when the Gas FVF is 44, Z-Factor is 29 and the pressure is 70.

This implies that;

Z = Z-Factor = 29
Bg = Gas FVF = 44
P = Pressure = 70

T = Bg.P / 0.00504Z
T = 44 x 70 / 0.00504 x 29
T = 3080 / 0.14616
T = 21072.79

Therefore, the temperature is 21072.79.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Gas Formation Volume Factor (FVF) | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Gas Recovery Factor of a Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents a gas recovery factor.

To compute for the gas recovery factor, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are initial pressure(Pi), initial compressibility factor (Ziand P/Z Ratio (P/Z).

The formula for calculating the gas recovery factor:

RFG = 1 – P/Z.Pi / Zi

Where;

RFG = Gas Recovery Factor (P, Z)
Pi = Initial Pressure
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor
P/Z = P/Z Ratio

Let’s solve an example;
Find the gas recovery factor when the initial pressure is 12, the initial compressibility factor is 7 and the P/Z ratio is 36.

This implies that;

Pi = Initial Pressure = 12
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor = 7
P/Z = P/Z Ratio = 36

RFG = 1 – P / Z.Pi / Zi
RFG = 1 – 36[12 / 7]
RFG = 1 – 36[1.714]
RFG = 1 – 61.714
RFG = -60.714

Therefore, the gas recovery factor is -60.714.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Gas Recovery Factor of a Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Pressure and Initial Compressibility Factor Ratio of a Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents pressure and initial compressibility factor ratio (P/Z Ratio).

To compute for the pressure and initial compressibility factor ratio, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are initial pressure (Pi), Initial Compressibility Factor (Zi), Cumulative Gas Production (GP) and initial gas in place (G).

The formula for calculating the P/Z Ratio:

P/Z = Pi / Zi (1 – Gp / G)

Where;

P/Z = P/Z Ratio
Pi = Initial Pressure
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor
GP = Cumulative Gas Production
G = Initial Gas in Place

Let’s solve an example;
Given that the initial pressure is 20, the initial compressibility factor is 28, the cumulative gas production is 30 and the initial gas in place is 34.
Find the pressure and initial compressibility factor ratio (P/Z Ratio)?

This implies that;

Pi = Initial Pressure = 20
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor = 28
GP = Cumulative Gas Production  = 30
G = Initial Gas in Place = 34

P/Z = Pi / Zi (1 – Gp / G)
P/Z = 20 / 28 (1 – 30 / 34)
P/Z = 20 / 28 (1 – 0.88)
P/Z = 20 / 28 (0.117)
P/Z = 0.714(0.117)
P/Z = 0.084

Therefore, the P/Z Ratio is 0.084.

Calculating for Initial Pressure when P/Z Ratio, Initial Compressibility Factor, Cumulative Gas Pressure and Initial Gas In Place is Given.

Pi = P/Z x Zi / (1 – Gp / G)

Where;

Pi = Initial Pressure
P/Z = P/Z Ratio
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor
GP = Cumulative Gas Production
G = Initial Gas in Place

Let’s solve an example;
Given that the P/Z Ratio is 50, the initial compressibility factor is 18, the cumulative gas production is 25 and the initial gas in place is 32.
Find the initial pressure ?

This implies that;

P/Z = P/Z Ratio = 50
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor = 18
GP = Cumulative Gas Production = 25
G = Initial Gas in Place = 32

Pi = P/Z x Zi / (1 – Gp / G)
Pi = 50 x 18 / (1 – 25 / 32)
Pi = 900 / (1 – 0.78125)
Pi = 900 / (0.21875)
Pi = 4114.28

Therefore, the Initial Pressure is 4114.28.

Calculating for Initial Compressibility Factor when P/Z Ratio, Initial Pressure, Cumulative Gas Pressure and Initial Gas In Place is Given.

Zi = Pi (1 – Gp / G) / P/Z

Where;

Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor
Pi = Initial Pressure
P/Z = P/Z Ratio
GP = Cumulative Gas Production
G = Initial Gas in Place

Let’s solve an example;
Given that the P/Z Ratio is 40, the initial pressure is 18, the cumulative gas production is 15 and the initial gas in place is 22.
Find the initial compressibility factor ?

This implies that;

Pi = Initial Pressure = 18
P/Z = P/Z Ratio = 40
GP = Cumulative Gas Production = 15
G = Initial Gas in Place = 22

Zi = Pi (1 – Gp / G) / P/Z
Zi = 18 (1 – 15 / 22) / 40
Zi = 18 (1 – 0.681) / 40
Zi = 18 (0.319) / 40
Zi = 5.742 / 40
Zi = 0.1435

Therefore, the initial compressibility factor is  0.1435.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Pressure and Initial Compressibility Factor Ratio of a Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Radial Flow Rate in Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents the radial flow rate.

To compute for the radial flow rate, eight essential parameters are needed and these parameters are External Pressure (Pe), Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure (Pwf), Formation Thickness (h), Oil Viscosity (μo ), Permeability (k), Oil Formation Volume Factor (Bo), Drainage Radius (reand Well Bore Radius (rw ).

The formula for calculating the radial flow rate:

Qo = 0.00708kh[Pe – Pwf] / μo Bo In[re / rw]

Where;

Qo = Radial Flow Rate
Pe = External Pressure
Pwf = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure
h = Formation Thickness
μo = Oil Viscosity
k = Permeability
Bo = Oil Formation Volume Factor
re = Drainage Radius
rw = Well Bore Radius

Let’s solve an example;
Find the radial flow rate when the External Pressure is 14, Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure is 21, Formation Thickness is 7, Oil Viscosity is 35, Permeability is 50, Oil Formation Volume Factor is 13, Drainage Radius is 26 and Well Bore Radius is 15.

This implies that;

Pe = External Pressure = 14
Pwf = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure = 21
h = Formation Thickness = 7
μo = Oil Viscosity = 35
k = Permeability = 50
Bo = Oil Formation Volume Factor = 13
re = Drainage Radius = 26
rw = Well Bore Radius = 15

Qo = 0.00708kh[Pe – Pwf] / μo Bo In[re / rw]
Qo = 0.00708 x 50 x 7 [14 – 21] / 35 x 13 In[26 / 15]
Qo = 0.00708 x 50 x 7 [-7] / 35 x 13 In[26 / 15]
Qo = 0.00708 x 50 x 7 [-7] / 35 x 13 In[1.73]
Qo = 0.00708 x 50 x 7 [-7] /35 x 13 x 0.55
Qo = 2.478 [-7] / 35 x 13 x 0.55
Qo = -17.346 / 250.27
Qo = -0.069

Therefore, the radial flow rate is -0.069 STB/day.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Radial Flow Rate in Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Linear Flow Rate in Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents the linear flow rate.

To compute for the linear flow rate, four parameters are needed and these parameters are Initial pressure (P1), Final Pressure (P2), Thickness (h) and Permeability (k).

The formula for calculating linear flow rate:

q = 0.001127kh[P1 – P2]

Where:
q = Linear Flow Rate
P1 = Initial Pressure
P2 = Final Pressure
h = Thickness
k = Permeability

Let’s solve an example;
Find the linear flow rate when the initial pressure is 12, final pressure is 22, thickness is 18 and permeability is 44.

This implies that;
P1 = Initial Pressure = 12
P2 = Final Pressure = 22
h = Thickness = 18
k = Permeability = 44

q = 0.001127kh [P1 – P2]
q = 0.001127 x 44 x 18 [12 – 22]
q = 0.001127 x 44 x 18 [-10]
q = 0.892584 [-10]
q = -8.92584

Therefore, the linear flow rate is -8.92584 bbl/day.

Calculating Permeability when the linear flow rate, Initial Pressure, Final Pressure and Thickness is Given.

k = q / 0.001127h (p1 – p2)

Where;
k = Permeability
q = Linear Flow Rate
P1 = Initial Pressure
P2 = Final Pressure
h = Thickness

Let’s solve an example;
Find the permeability when the initial pressure is 34, final pressure is 24, thickness is 12 and linear flow rate is 50.

This implies that;
q = Linear Flow Rate = 50
P1 = Initial Pressure = 34
P2 = Final Pressure = 24
h = Thickness = 12

k = q / 0.001127h (p1 – p2)
k = 50 / 0.001127h (34 – 24)
k = 50 / 0.001127h (10)
k = 50 / 0.01127
k = 4436.5

Therefore, the permeability is 4436.5.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Linear Flow Rate in Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Fluid Potential, Pressure, Datum Level and Density | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents the fluid potential.

To compute for the fluid potential, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are pressure (P), Datum Levels (ΔZ) and Density (ρ).

The formula for calculating fluid potential:

φ = P – [ρ / 144]ΔZ

Where;
φ = Fluid Potential
P = Pressure
ΔZ = Datum Levels
ρ = Density

Let’s solve an example;
Find the fluid potential when the pressure is 24 with a datum level of 18 and the density of 30.

This implies that;
P = Pressure = 24
ΔZ = Datum Levels = 18
ρ = Density = 30

φ = P – [ρ / 144]ΔZ
φ = 24 – [30/144] 18
φ = 24 – [0.2083] 18
φ = 24 – 3.75
φ = 20.25

Therefore, the fluid potential is 20.25.

Calculating the Pressure(P) when the fluid potential, Datum levels and Density is Given.

P = φ – [ρ / 144]ΔZ

Where;
P = Pressure
φ = Fluid Potential
ΔZ = Datum Levels
ρ = Density

Lets solve an example;
Find the pressure with a fluid potential of 40 and a datum levels of 18 with density of 24.

This implies that;
φ = Fluid Potential = 40
ΔZ = Datum Levels = 18
ρ = Density = 24

P = φ – [ρ / 144]ΔZ
P = 40 – [24 / 144]18
P = 40 – [0.167]18
P = 40 – 3
P = 37

Therefore, the pressure is 37.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Fluid Potential, Pressure, Datum Level and Density | The Calculator Encyclopedia

Nickzom Calculator Solves Calculations on Gas Laws

In Physics and Chemistry, there are four prominent gas laws that govern calculations related to gases. These laws have major parameters such as:

  • Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Volume

The four gas laws are:

  • Boyle’s Law
  • Charles’ Law
  • Pressure or Gay Lussac’s Law
  • The General Gas Equation

According to Boyle’s law, pressure is indirectly proportional to volume.

According to Charles’ law, volume is directly proportional to temperature.

According to Pressure or Gay Lussac’s law, pressure is directly proportional to temperature.

According to the General Gas Equation or law, the product of pressure and volume is directly proportional to temperature.

For this post, I would be given an example of how Nickzom Calculator can solve a problem on gas laws with the general gas equation or law.

One can access Nickzom Calculator via any of these channels:

Web – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

Android (Free) – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

Android (Paid) – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

Apple (Paid) – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Let’s assume that one is looking for an unknown temperature.

First and foremost, click on General Gas Law.

Then click on Unknwon Temperature.

Now, proceed to enter the values of the known parameters

Then, click on calculate.

The result would be displayed for you in less than a second.

This pattern can be used to solve any calculation problem one faces in gas laws.