How to Calculate and Solve for Standard Permeability of Sand | Solidification of Metals

The image above represents standard permeability of sand.

To compute for standard permeability of sand, five essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Volume of Area (V), Height of Sand Specimen (H), Pressure (Pr), Cross-Sectional Area of Sand Specimen (A) and Time (t).

The formula for calculating the standard permeability of sand:

P = VH / PrAt

Where:

P = Standard Permeability of Sand
V = Volume of Air
H = Height of Sand Specimen
Pr = Pressure
A = Cross-Sectional Area of Sand Specimen
t = Time

Let’s solve an example;
Find the standard permeability of sand when the volume of air is 6, the height of sand specimen is 3, the pressure is 8, the cross-sectional area of sand specimen is 5 and the time is 2.

This implies that;

V = Volume of Air = 6
H = Height of Sand Specimen = 3
Pr = Pressure = 8
A = Cross-Sectional Area of Sand Specimen = 5
t = Time = 2

P = VH / PrAt
P = 6 x 3 / 8 x 5 x 2
P = 18 / 80
P = 0.225

Therefore, the standard permeability of sand is 0.225.

Calculating the Volume of Air when the Standard Permeability of Sand, the Height of Sand Specimen, the Pressure, the Cross-Sectional Area of Sand Specimen and the Time is Given.

V = P x PrAt / H

Where:

V = Volume of Air
P = Standard Permeability of Sand
H = Height of Sand Specimen
Pr = Pressure
A = Cross-Sectional Area of Sand Specimen
t = Time

Let’s solve an example;
Find the volume of air when the standard permeability of sand is 10, the height of sand specimen is 2, the pressure is 4, the cross-sectional area of sand specimen is 8 and the time is 1.

This implies that;

P = Standard Permeability of Sand = 10
H = Height of Sand Specimen = 2
Pr = Pressure = 4
A = Cross-Sectional Area of Sand Specimen = 8
t = Time = 1

V = P x PrAt / H
V = 10 x (4)(8)(1) / 2
V = 320 / 2
V = 160

Therefore, the volume of air is 160.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Standard Permeability of Sand | Solidification of Metals

How to Calculate and Solve for Fluid Velocity | Fluidization

The image above represents fluid velocity.

To compute for fluid velocity, five essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Porosity (e), Pressure (-ΔP), Distance of Bed (d), Viscosity (μ) and Length of Bed (l).

The formula for calculating fluid velocity:

uc = 0.0055(/(1 – e)²)(-ΔPd²/μl)

Where:

uc = Fluid Velocity
e = Porosity
-ΔP = Pressure
d = Distance of Bed
μ = Viscosity
l = Length of Bed

Let’s solve an example;
Find the fluid velocity when the porosity is 20, the pressure is 10, the distance of bed is 12, the viscosity is 14 and the length of bed is 11.

This implies that;

e = Porosity = 20
-ΔP = Pressure = 10
d = Distance of Bed = 12
μ = Viscosity = 14
l = Length of Bed = 11

uc = 0.0055(/(1 – e)²)(-ΔPd²/μl)
uc = 0.0055(20³/(1 – 20)²)(10(12)²/(14)(11))
uc = 0.0055(8000/(-19)²)(10(144)/154)
uc = 0.0055(8000/361)(1440/154)
uc = 0.0055(22.16)(9.35)
uc = 1.139

Therefore, the fluid viscosity is 1.139 m/s.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Fluid Velocity | Fluidization

How to Calculate and Solve for Pressure Head | Aquifer Characteristics

The image above represents pressure head.

To compute for pressure head, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Pressure (P), Density (ρ) and Acceleration due to Gravity (g).

The formula for calculating pressure head:

hp = P / ρg

Where:

hp = Pressure Head
P = Pressure
p = Density
g = Acceleration due to Gravity

Let’s solve an example;
Find the pressure head when the pressure is 18, the density is 14 and the acceleration due to gravity is 9.

This implies that;

P = Pressure = 18
p = Density = 14
g = Acceleration due to Gravity = 9

hp = P / ρg
hp = 18 / (14)(9)
hp = 18 / 126
hp = 0.142

Therefore, the pressure head is 0.142.

Calculating the Pressure when the Pressure Head, the Density and the Acceleration due to Gravity is Given.

P = hp x pg

Where;

P = Pressure
hp = Pressure Head
p = Density
g = Acceleration due to Gravity

Let’s solve an example;
Find the pressure when the pressure head is 25, the density is 6 and the acceleration due to gravity is 9.

This implies that;

hp = Pressure Head = 25
p = Density = 6
g = Acceleration due to Gravity = 9

P = hp x pg
P = 25 x (6)(9)
P = 25 x 54
P = 1350

Therefore, the pressure is 1350.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Pressure Head | Aquifer Characteristics

How to Calculate and Solve for Standing Bubble Point | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents standing bubble point.

To compute for the standing bubble point, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Specific Gravity of Solution Gas (γg), Bubble Point Pressure (Pb) and Standing Bubble Point Parameter (a).

The formula for calculating the standing bubble point:

Rs = 18.2[((Pb / γg)0.83 x 10a) – 1.4]

Where:

Rs = Standing Bubble Point
γg = Specific Gravity of Solution Gas
Pb = Bubble Point Pressure
a = Standing Bubble Point Parameter

Let’s solve an example;
Find the standing bubble point with a specific gravity of solution gas of 24, bubble point pressure of 70 and standing bubble point parameter of 45.

This implies that;

γg = Specific Gravity of Solution Gas = 24
Pb = Bubble Point Pressure = 70
a = Standing Bubble Point Parameter = 45

Rs = 18.2[((Pb / γg)0.83 x 10a) – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[((70 / 24)0.83 x 1045) – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[((2.916)0.83 x 1045) – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[(2.43 x 1045) – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[2.431e+45 – 1.4]
Rs = 18.2[2.431e+45]
Rs = 4.425e+46

Therefore, the standing bubble point is 4.425e+46.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Standing Bubble Point | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Glass Gas Solubility Parameter in a Fluid | Nickzom Calculator

The image above represents glass gas solubility parameter.

To compute for the glass gas solubility parameter, one essential parameter is needed and the parameter is Pressure (P).

The formula for calculating the glass gas solubility parameter:

x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 3.3093logP]0.5

Where:

x = Glass Gas Solubility Parameter, x
P = Pressure

Let’s solve an example;
Find the glass gas solubility parameter when the pressure is 62.

This implies that;

x = Glass Gas Solubility Parameter, x = 62

x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 3.3093logP]0.5
x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 3.3093log(62)]0.5
x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 3.3093(1.79)]0.5
x = 2.8869 – [14.1811 – 5.93]0.5
x = 2.8869 – [8.249]0.5
x = 2.8869 – 2.87
x = 0.0146

Therefore, the Glass Gas Solubility Parameter is 0.0146.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Glass Gas Solubility Parameter in a Fluid | Nickzom Calculator

How to Solve and Calculate for a Dimensionless Pressure Drop, Oil Rate, Oil FVF, Oil Viscosity in Well Testing | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents dimensionless pressure drop.

To compute for the dimensionless pressure drop, five essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Permeability-Thickness Product (kh), Pressure Drop (ΔP), Oil Rate (Qo), Oil Viscosity (μo) and Oil FVF (Bo).

The formula for calculating dimensionless pressure drop:

PD = khΔP / 141.2QoBoμo

Where;

PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop
kH = Permeability-Thickness Product
ΔP = Pressure Drop
Qo = Oil Rate
μo = Oil Viscosity
Bo = Oil FVF

Let’s solve an example;
Find the dimensionless pressure drop with a permeability-thickness product of 70, a pressure drop of 30, an oil rate of 49, an oil viscosity of 19 and oil FVF of 31.

This implies that;

kh = Permeability-Thickness Product = 20
ΔP = Pressure Drop = 30
Qo = Oil Rate = 49
μo = Oil Viscosity = 19
Bo = Oil FVF = 31

PD = khΔP / 141.2QoBoμo
PD = 20 x 30/141.2 x 49 x 31 x 19
PD = 20 x 30/4075173.19
PD = 600/4075173.19
PD = 0.000147

Therefore, the dimensionless pressure drop is 0.000147 psi.

Calculating the Permeability-Thickness Product when Dimensionless Pressure Drop, Pressure Drop, Oil Rate, Oil Viscosity and Oil FVF.

kh = PD x 141.2QoBoμo / ΔP

Where;

kh = Permeability-Thickness Product
PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop
ΔP = Pressure Drop
Qo = Oil Rate
μo = Oil Viscosity
Bo = Oil FVF

Let’s solve an example;
Find the permeability-thickness product with a dimensionless pressure drop of 28, a pressure drop of 16, an oil rate of 21, an oil viscosity of 18 and oil FVF of 24 .

This implies that;

PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop = 28
ΔP = Pressure Drop =16
Qo = Oil Rate = 21
μo = Oil Viscosity = 18
Bo = Oil FVF = 24

kh = PD x 141.2QoBoμo / ΔP
kh = 28 x 141.2 x 21 x 24 x 18 / 16
kh = 35867059.8 / 16
kh = 2241691.2

Therefore, the permeability-thickness product is 2241691.2.

Calculating the Pressure Drop when Dimensionless Pressure Drop, Permeability-Thickness Product, Oil Rate, Oil Viscosity and Oil FVF.

ΔP = PD x 141.2QoBoμo / kh

Where;

ΔP = Pressure Drop
PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop
kh = Permeability-Thickness Product
Qo = Oil Rate
μo = Oil Viscosity
Bo = Oil FVF

Let’s solve an example;
Find the pressure drop with a dimensionless pressure drop of 38, a permeability-thickness product of 24, an oil rate of 11, an oil viscosity of 8 and oil FVF of 12.

This implies that;

PD = Dimensionless Pressure Drop = 38
kh = Permeability-Thickness Product = 24
Qo = Oil Rate = 11
μo = Oil Viscosity = 8
Bo = Oil FVF = 12

ΔP = PD x 141.2QoBoμo / kh
ΔP = 38 x 141.2 x 11 x 12 x 8 / 24
ΔP = 5666073.6 / 24
ΔP = 236086.4

Therefore, the pressure drop is 236086.4.

Continue reading How to Solve and Calculate for a Dimensionless Pressure Drop, Oil Rate, Oil FVF, Oil Viscosity in Well Testing | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Gas Formation Volume Factor (FVF) | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents the gas FVF.

To compute for the gas FVF, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Z-Factor (Z), Temperature (T) and Pressure (P).

The formula for calculating the gas FVF:

Bg = 0.00504[ZT / P]

Where;

Bg = Gas FVF
Z = Z-Factor
T = (°R) Temperature
P = Pressure

Let’s solve an example;
Find the Gas FVF when the Z-Factor is 12, temperature is 30 and the pressure is 120.

This implies that;

Z = Z-Factor = 12
T = (°R) Temperature = 30
P = Pressure = 120

Bg = 0.00504[ZT / P]
Bg = 0.00504[12 x 30 / 120]
Bg = 0.00504[360 / 120]
Bg = 0.00504[3]
Bg = 0.01512

Therefore, the gas FVF is 0.01512 bbl / scf.

Calculating for the Z-Factor when the Gas FVF, Temperature and Pressure is Given.

Z = Bg.P / 0.00504T

Where;

Z = Z-Factor
Bg = Gas FVF
T = (°R) Temperature
P = Pressure

Let’s solve an example;
Find the Z-Factor when the Gas FVF is 22, temperature is 16 and the pressure is 80.

This implies that;

Bg = Gas FVF = 22
T = (°R) Temperature = 16
P = Pressure = 80

Z = Bg.P / 0.00504T
Z = 22 x 80 / 0.00504 x 16
Z = 1760 / 0.08064
Z = 21825.39

Therefore, the Z-Factor is 21825.39.

Calculating for the Temperature when the Gas FVF, Z-Factor and the Pressure is Given.

T = Bg.P / 0.00504Z

Where;

T = (°R) Temperature
Z = Z-Factor
Bg = Gas FVF
P = Pressure

Let’s solve an example;
Find the Temperature when the Gas FVF is 44, Z-Factor is 29 and the pressure is 70.

This implies that;

Z = Z-Factor = 29
Bg = Gas FVF = 44
P = Pressure = 70

T = Bg.P / 0.00504Z
T = 44 x 70 / 0.00504 x 29
T = 3080 / 0.14616
T = 21072.79

Therefore, the temperature is 21072.79.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Gas Formation Volume Factor (FVF) | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Gas Recovery Factor of a Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents a gas recovery factor.

To compute for the gas recovery factor, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are initial pressure(Pi), initial compressibility factor (Ziand P/Z Ratio (P/Z).

The formula for calculating the gas recovery factor:

RFG = 1 – P/Z.Pi / Zi

Where;

RFG = Gas Recovery Factor (P, Z)
Pi = Initial Pressure
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor
P/Z = P/Z Ratio

Let’s solve an example;
Find the gas recovery factor when the initial pressure is 12, the initial compressibility factor is 7 and the P/Z ratio is 36.

This implies that;

Pi = Initial Pressure = 12
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor = 7
P/Z = P/Z Ratio = 36

RFG = 1 – P / Z.Pi / Zi
RFG = 1 – 36[12 / 7]
RFG = 1 – 36[1.714]
RFG = 1 – 61.714
RFG = -60.714

Therefore, the gas recovery factor is -60.714.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Gas Recovery Factor of a Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Pressure and Initial Compressibility Factor Ratio of a Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents pressure and initial compressibility factor ratio (P/Z Ratio).

To compute for the pressure and initial compressibility factor ratio, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are initial pressure (Pi), Initial Compressibility Factor (Zi), Cumulative Gas Production (GP) and initial gas in place (G).

The formula for calculating the P/Z Ratio:

P/Z = Pi / Zi (1 – Gp / G)

Where;

P/Z = P/Z Ratio
Pi = Initial Pressure
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor
GP = Cumulative Gas Production
G = Initial Gas in Place

Let’s solve an example;
Given that the initial pressure is 20, the initial compressibility factor is 28, the cumulative gas production is 30 and the initial gas in place is 34.
Find the pressure and initial compressibility factor ratio (P/Z Ratio)?

This implies that;

Pi = Initial Pressure = 20
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor = 28
GP = Cumulative Gas Production  = 30
G = Initial Gas in Place = 34

P/Z = Pi / Zi (1 – Gp / G)
P/Z = 20 / 28 (1 – 30 / 34)
P/Z = 20 / 28 (1 – 0.88)
P/Z = 20 / 28 (0.117)
P/Z = 0.714(0.117)
P/Z = 0.084

Therefore, the P/Z Ratio is 0.084.

Calculating for Initial Pressure when P/Z Ratio, Initial Compressibility Factor, Cumulative Gas Pressure and Initial Gas In Place is Given.

Pi = P/Z x Zi / (1 – Gp / G)

Where;

Pi = Initial Pressure
P/Z = P/Z Ratio
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor
GP = Cumulative Gas Production
G = Initial Gas in Place

Let’s solve an example;
Given that the P/Z Ratio is 50, the initial compressibility factor is 18, the cumulative gas production is 25 and the initial gas in place is 32.
Find the initial pressure ?

This implies that;

P/Z = P/Z Ratio = 50
Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor = 18
GP = Cumulative Gas Production = 25
G = Initial Gas in Place = 32

Pi = P/Z x Zi / (1 – Gp / G)
Pi = 50 x 18 / (1 – 25 / 32)
Pi = 900 / (1 – 0.78125)
Pi = 900 / (0.21875)
Pi = 4114.28

Therefore, the Initial Pressure is 4114.28.

Calculating for Initial Compressibility Factor when P/Z Ratio, Initial Pressure, Cumulative Gas Pressure and Initial Gas In Place is Given.

Zi = Pi (1 – Gp / G) / P/Z

Where;

Zi = Initial Compressibility Factor
Pi = Initial Pressure
P/Z = P/Z Ratio
GP = Cumulative Gas Production
G = Initial Gas in Place

Let’s solve an example;
Given that the P/Z Ratio is 40, the initial pressure is 18, the cumulative gas production is 15 and the initial gas in place is 22.
Find the initial compressibility factor ?

This implies that;

Pi = Initial Pressure = 18
P/Z = P/Z Ratio = 40
GP = Cumulative Gas Production = 15
G = Initial Gas in Place = 22

Zi = Pi (1 – Gp / G) / P/Z
Zi = 18 (1 – 15 / 22) / 40
Zi = 18 (1 – 0.681) / 40
Zi = 18 (0.319) / 40
Zi = 5.742 / 40
Zi = 0.1435

Therefore, the initial compressibility factor is  0.1435.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Pressure and Initial Compressibility Factor Ratio of a Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

How to Calculate and Solve for Radial Flow Rate in Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents the radial flow rate.

To compute for the radial flow rate, eight essential parameters are needed and these parameters are External Pressure (Pe), Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure (Pwf), Formation Thickness (h), Oil Viscosity (μo ), Permeability (k), Oil Formation Volume Factor (Bo), Drainage Radius (reand Well Bore Radius (rw ).

The formula for calculating the radial flow rate:

Qo = 0.00708kh[Pe – Pwf] / μo Bo In[re / rw]

Where;

Qo = Radial Flow Rate
Pe = External Pressure
Pwf = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure
h = Formation Thickness
μo = Oil Viscosity
k = Permeability
Bo = Oil Formation Volume Factor
re = Drainage Radius
rw = Well Bore Radius

Let’s solve an example;
Find the radial flow rate when the External Pressure is 14, Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure is 21, Formation Thickness is 7, Oil Viscosity is 35, Permeability is 50, Oil Formation Volume Factor is 13, Drainage Radius is 26 and Well Bore Radius is 15.

This implies that;

Pe = External Pressure = 14
Pwf = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure = 21
h = Formation Thickness = 7
μo = Oil Viscosity = 35
k = Permeability = 50
Bo = Oil Formation Volume Factor = 13
re = Drainage Radius = 26
rw = Well Bore Radius = 15

Qo = 0.00708kh[Pe – Pwf] / μo Bo In[re / rw]
Qo = 0.00708 x 50 x 7 [14 – 21] / 35 x 13 In[26 / 15]
Qo = 0.00708 x 50 x 7 [-7] / 35 x 13 In[26 / 15]
Qo = 0.00708 x 50 x 7 [-7] / 35 x 13 In[1.73]
Qo = 0.00708 x 50 x 7 [-7] /35 x 13 x 0.55
Qo = 2.478 [-7] / 35 x 13 x 0.55
Qo = -17.346 / 250.27
Qo = -0.069

Therefore, the radial flow rate is -0.069 STB/day.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Radial Flow Rate in Reservoir Fluid Flow | The Calculator Encyclopedia