How to Calculate and Solve for Bulk Density | Refractories

The bulk density is illustrated by the image below.

To compute for bulk density, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Dried Weight (W), Density of Water (ρw), Soaked Weight (W) and Suspended Weight (S).

The formula for calculating bulk density:

BD = w/W – S

Where:

BD = Bulk Density
D = Dried Weight
ρw = Density of Water
W = Soaked Weight
S = Suspended Weight

Let’s solve an example;
Find the bulk density when the dried weight is 6, the density of water is 10, the soaked weight is 14 and the suspended weight is 9.

This implies that;

D = Dried Weight = 6
ρw = Density of Water = 10
W = Soaked Weight = 14
S = Suspended Weight = 9

BD = w/W – S
BD = (6)(10)/(14 – 9)
BD = (60)/(5)
BD = 12

Therefore, the bulk density is 12g/cm³.

Calculating the Dried Weight when the Bulk Density, the Density of Water, the Soaked Weight and the Suspended Weight is Given.

D = BD(W – S) / ρw

Where:

D = Dried Weight
BD = Bulk Density
ρw = Density of Water
W = Soaked Weight
S = Suspended Weight

Let’s solve an example;
Find the dried weight when the bulk density is 10, the density of water is 4, the soaked weight is 8 and the suspended weight is 5.

This implies that;

BD = Bulk Density = 10
ρw = Density of Water = 4
W = Soaked Weight = 8
S = Suspended Weight = 5

D = BD(W – S) / ρw
D = 10(8 – 5) / 4
D = 10(3) / 4
D = 30 / 4
D = 7.5

Therefore, the dried weight is 7.5g.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Bulk Density | Refractories

How to Calculate and Solve for Unit Weight | Soil Mechanics and Foundation

The image above represents unit weight.

To compute for unit weight, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Bulk density of soil (g), Density of water (ρwand Unit Weight of water (γw).

The formula for calculating unit weight:

Γ = g . γw / ρw

Where:

Γ = Unit Weight
g = Bulk Density of Soil
ρw = Density of Water
γw = Unit Weight of Water

Let’s solve an example;
Find the unit weight when the bulk density of soil is 7, the density of water is 16 and the unit weight of water is 9.

This implies that;

g = Bulk Density of Soil = 7
ρw = Density of Water = 16
γw = Unit Weight of Water = 9

Γ = g . γw / ρw
Γ = (7) . (9) / 16
Γ = 63 / 16
Γ = 3.93

Therefore, the unit weight is 3.93.

Calculating for the Bulk Density of Soil when the Unit Weight, the Density of Water and the Unit Weight of Water is Given.

g = Γ x ρw / γw

Where;

g = Bulk Density of Soil
Γ = Unit Weight
ρw = Density of Water
γw = Unit Weight of Water

Let’s solve an example;
Find the bulk density of soil when the unit weight is 42, the density of water is 14 and the unit weight of water is 7.

This implies that;

Γ = Unit Weight = 42
ρw = Density of Water = 14
γw = Unit Weight of Water = 7

g = Γ x ρw / γw
g = 42 x 14 / 7
g = 588 / 7
g = 84

Therefore, the bulk density of soil is 84.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Unit Weight | Soil Mechanics and Foundation

How to Calculate and Solve for Specific Gravity of Soil Particle | Soil Mechanics and Foundation

The image above represents specific gravity of soil particle.

To compute for specific gravity of soil particle, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Density of water (ρwand Density of soil (ρs).

The formula for calculating specific gravity of soil particle:

Gs = ρs / ρw

Where:

Gs = Specific Gravity of Soil Particle
ρw = Density of Water
ρs = Density of Soil

Let’s solve an example;
Find the specific gravity of soil particle when the density of water is 22 and the the density of soil is 11.

This implies that;

ρw = Density of Water = 22
ρs = Density of Soil = 11

Gs = ρs / ρw
Gs = 11 / 22
Gs = 0.5

Therefore, the specific gravity of soil particle is 0.5.

Calculating the Density of Water when the Specific Gravity of Soil Particle and the Density of Soil is Given.

ρw = ρs / Gs

Where;

ρw = Density of Water
Gs = Specific Gravity of Soil Particle
ρs = Density of Soil

Let’s solve an example;
Given that the specific gravity of soil particle is 12 and the density of soil is 156. Find the density of water?

This implies that;

Gs = Specific Gravity of Soil Particle = 12
ρs = Density of Soil = 156

ρw = ρs / Gs
ρw = 156 / 12
ρw = 13

Therefore, the density of water is 13.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Specific Gravity of Soil Particle | Soil Mechanics and Foundation

How to Calculate and Solve for Specific Storage | Aquifer Characteristics

The image above represents specific storage.

To compute for specific storage, five essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Density of Water (ρw), Acceleration due to gravity (g), Compressibility of the Aquifer (α), Porosity (n) and Compressibility of Water (β).

The formula for calculating specific storage:

Ss = ρwg(α + nβ)

Where:

Ss = Specific Storage
ρw = Density of Water
g = Acceleration due to Gravity
α = Compressibility of the Aquifer
n = Porosity
β = Compressibility of Water

Let’s solve an example;
Find the specific storage when the density of water is 22, the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8, the comepressibility of the aquifer is 15, the porosity is 10 and the compressibility of water is 22.

This implies that;

ρw = Density of Water = 22
g = Acceleration due to Gravity = 9.8
α = Compressibility of the Aquifer = 15
n = Porosity = 10
β = Compressibility of Water = 22

Ss = ρwg(α + nβ)
Ss = (22)(9.8)(15 + 10(22))
Ss = 215.60 (15 + 220)
Ss = 215.60 (235)
Ss = 50666.0

Therefore, the specific storage is 50666.0.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Specific Storage | Aquifer Characteristics