How to Calculate and Solve for Moisture Content | Refractories

The moisture content is illustrated by the image below.

To compute for moisture content, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Weight of the Sample before Drying (G) and Weight of the Sample after Drying (G1).

The formula for calculating moisture content:

w = 100((G – G1)/G)

Where:

w = Moisture Content
G = Weight of the Sample before Drying
G1 = Weight of the Sample after Drying

Let’s solve an example;
Find the moisture content when the weight of the sample before drying is 40 and the weight of the sample after drying is 10.

This implies that;

G = Weight of the Sample before Drying = 40
G1 = Weight of the Sample after Drying = 10

w = 100((G – G1)/G)
w = 100((40 – 10)/40)
w = 100(30/40)
w = 100(0.75)
w = 75

Therefore, the moisture content is 75%.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Moisture Content | Refractories

How to Calculate and Solve for Loss on Ignition | Refractories

The loss on ignition is illustrated by the image below.

To compute for loss on ignition, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Weight before Firing (m1) and Weight after Firing (m2).

The formula for calculating loss on ignition:

LOI = 100((m1 – m2)/m1)

Where:

LOI = Loss On Ignition
m1 = Weight before Firing
m2 = Weight after Firing

Let’s solve an example;
Find the loss on ignition when the weight before firing is 22 and the weight after firing is 11.

This implies that;

m1 = Weight before Firing = 22
m2 = Weight after Firing = 11

LOI = 100((m1 – m2)/m1)
LOI = 100((22 – 11)/22)
LOI = 100(11/22)
LOI = 100(0.5)
LOI = 50

Therefore, the loss on ignition is 50%.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Loss on Ignition | Refractories

How to Calculate and Solve for Apparent Porosity | Refractories

The apparent porosity is illustrated by the image below.

To compute for apparent porosity, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Soaked Weight (W), Dried Weight (D) and Suspended Weight (S).

The formula for calulating apparent porosity:

AP = 100((W – D)/(W – S))

Where:

AP = Apparent Porosity
W = Soaked Weight
D = Dried Weight
S = Suspended Weight

Let’s solve an example;
Find the apparent porosity when the soaked weight is 14, the dried weight is 10 and the suspended weight is 12.

This implies that;

W = Soaked Weight = 14
D = Dried Weight = 10
S = Suspended Weight = 12

AP = 100((W – D)/(W – S))
AP = 100((14 – 10)/(14 – 12))
AP = 100(4/2)
AP = 100(2)
AP = 200

Therefore, the apparent porosity is 200%.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Apparent Porosity | Refractories

How to Calculate and Solve for Bulk Density | Refractories

The bulk density is illustrated by the image below.

To compute for bulk density, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Dried Weight (W), Density of Water (ρw), Soaked Weight (W) and Suspended Weight (S).

The formula for calculating bulk density:

BD = w/W – S

Where:

BD = Bulk Density
D = Dried Weight
ρw = Density of Water
W = Soaked Weight
S = Suspended Weight

Let’s solve an example;
Find the bulk density when the dried weight is 6, the density of water is 10, the soaked weight is 14 and the suspended weight is 9.

This implies that;

D = Dried Weight = 6
ρw = Density of Water = 10
W = Soaked Weight = 14
S = Suspended Weight = 9

BD = w/W – S
BD = (6)(10)/(14 – 9)
BD = (60)/(5)
BD = 12

Therefore, the bulk density is 12g/cm³.

Calculating the Dried Weight when the Bulk Density, the Density of Water, the Soaked Weight and the Suspended Weight is Given.

D = BD(W – S) / ρw

Where:

D = Dried Weight
BD = Bulk Density
ρw = Density of Water
W = Soaked Weight
S = Suspended Weight

Let’s solve an example;
Find the dried weight when the bulk density is 10, the density of water is 4, the soaked weight is 8 and the suspended weight is 5.

This implies that;

BD = Bulk Density = 10
ρw = Density of Water = 4
W = Soaked Weight = 8
S = Suspended Weight = 5

D = BD(W – S) / ρw
D = 10(8 – 5) / 4
D = 10(3) / 4
D = 30 / 4
D = 7.5

Therefore, the dried weight is 7.5g.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Bulk Density | Refractories

How to Calculate and Solve for Fired Linear Shrinkage | Refractories

The fired linear shrinkage is illustrated by the image below.

To compute for fired linear shrinkage, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Dried Length (DL) and Fired Length (FL).

The formula for calculating fired linear shrinkage:

FLS = 100(DL – FL/DL)

Where:

FLS = Fired Linear Shrinkage
DL = Dried Length
FL = Fired Length

Given an example;
Find the fired linear shrinkage when the dried length is 32 and the fired length is 12.

This implies that;

DL = Dried Length = 32
FL = Fired Length = 12

FLS = 100(DL – FL/DL)
FLS = 100((32 – 12)/32)
FLS = 100(20/32)
FLS = 100(0.625)
FLS = 62.5

Therefore, the fired linear shrinkage is 62.5%.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Fired Linear Shrinkage | Refractories

How to Calculate and Solve for Cold Crushing Strength | Refractories

The cold crushing strength is illustrated by the image below.

To compute for cold crushing strength, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Maximum Load (MI) and Cross-sectional Area (A).

The formula for calculating cold crushing strength:

CCS = MI/A

Where:

CCS = Cold Crushing Strength
MI = Maximum Load
A = Cross-sectional Area

Let’s solve an example;
Find the cold crushing strength when the maximum load is 44 and the cross-sectional area is 11.

This implies that;

MI = Maximum Load = 44
A = Cross-sectional Area = 11

CCS = MI/A
CCS = 44/11
CCS = 4

Therefore, the cold crushing strength is 4 Pa.

Calculating the Maximum Load when the Cold Crushing Strength and the Cross-Sectional Area is Given.

MI = CCS x A

Where:

MI = Maximum Load
CCS = Cold Crushing Strength
A = Cross-sectional Area

Let’s solve an example;
Given that the cold crushing strength is 15 and the cross-sectional area is 5. Find the maximum load?

This implies that;

CCS = Cold Crushing Strength = 15
A = Cross-sectional Area = 5

MI = CCS x A
MI = 15 x 5
MI = 75

Therefore, the cold crushing strength is 75.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Cold Crushing Strength | Refractories

How to Calculate and Solve for Permeability Number | Refractories

The permeability number is illustrated by the image below.

To compute for the permeability number, five essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Volume of Air (V), Height of the Specimen (H), Cross-sectional Area (A), Air Pressure (P) and Time (t).

The formula for calculating permeability number:

PN = VH/APt

Where:

PN = Permeability Number
V = Volume of Air
H = Height of the Specimen
A = Cross-sectional Area
P = Air Pressure
t = Time

Let’s solve an example;
Find the permeability number when the volume of air is 2, the height of the specimen is 7, the cross-sectional area is 3, the air pressure is 9 and the time is 4.

This implies that;

V = Volume of Air = 2
H = Height of the Specimen = 7
A = Cross-sectional Area = 3
P = Air Pressure = 9
t = Time = 4

PN = VH/APt
PN = (2)(7)/(3)(9)(4)
PN = (14)/(108)
PN = 0.129

Therefore, the permeability number is 0.129.

Continue reading How to Calculate and Solve for Permeability Number | Refractories