## How to Calculate and Solve for Relationship between Modulus of Elasticity on Volume Fraction Porosity, E | Ceramics

The image above represents modulus of elasticity.

To compute for the relationship between modulus of elasticity on volume fraction porosity, two essential parameters are needed and these are Modulus of Elasticity of Non Porous Material (Eo) and Volume Fraction Porosity (P).

The formula for calculating the modulus of elasticity:

E = Eo(1 – 1.9P + 0.9P²)

Where:

E = Modulus of Elasticity
Eo = Modulus of Elasticity of Non Porous Material.
P = Volume Fraction Porosity

Let’s solve an example;
Find the modulus of elasticity when the modulus of elasticity of non porous material is 12 and volume fraction porosity is 22.

This implies that;

Eo = Modulus of Elasticity of Non Porous Material = 12
P = Volume Fraction Porosity = 22

E = Eo(1 – 1.9P + 0.9P²)
E = (12)(1 – 1.9(22) + 0.9(22)²)
E = (12)(1 – (41.8) + 0.9(484))
E = (12)(1 – (41.8) + (435.6))
E = (12)(394.8)
E = 4737.6

Therefore, the modulus of elasticity is 4737.6 Pa.

## How to Calculate and Solve for Viscosity | Ceramics

The image above represents viscosity.

To compute for viscosity, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Force applied (F), Area (A) and Derivation Ratio of Velocity to Distance of Fluid Flow (dv/dy).

The formula for calculating viscosity:

η = F/A / dv/dy

Where:

η = Viscosity
F = Force Applied
A = Area
dv/dy = Derivation Ratio of Velocity to Distance of Fluid Flow

Let’s solve an example;
Find the viscosity when the force applied is 21, area is 14 and derivation ratio of velocity to distance of fluid flow is 19.

This implies that;

F = Force Applied = 21
A = Area = 14
dv/dy = Derivation Ratio of Velocity to Distance of Fluid Flow = 19

η = F/A / dv/dy
η = (21/14) / (19)
η = (1.5) / (19)
η = 0.0789

Therefore, the viscosity is 0.0789 Pa s.

Calculating Force Applied when the Viscosity, the Area and the Derivation ratio of velocity to distance of fluid flow is Given.

F = (η x dv/dy) A

Where;

F = Force Applied
η = Viscosity
A = Area
dv/dy = Derivation Ratio of Velocity to Distance of Fluid Flow

Let’s solve an example;
Find the force applied when the viscosity is 20, the area is 30 and the derivation is 8.

This implies that;

η = Viscosity = 20
A = Area = 30
dv/dy = Derivation Ratio of Velocity to Distance of Fluid Flow = 8

F = (η x dv/dy) A
F = (20 x 8) 30
F = (160) 30
F = 4800

Therefore, the force applied is 4800.

## How to Calculate and Solve for Normally Occupied Positions | Ceramics

The image above represents normally occupied positions.

To compute for normally occupied positions, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Avogadro’s number (NA), Density (ρ), Atomic weight (AK) and Atomic weights (AG).

The formula for calculating normally occupied positions:

N = NAρ / (AK + AG)

N = Normally Occupied Positions
NA = Avogadro’s Number
AK, AG = Atomic Weights
ρ = Density

Let’s solve an example;
Find the normally occupied positions when the avogadro’s number is 6.022e+23, atomic weight is 12, atomic weight is 16 and the density is 10.

This implies that;

NA = Avogadro’s Number = 6.022e+23
AK, AG = Atomic Weights = 12, 16
ρ = Density = 10

N = NAρ / (AK + AG)
N = (6.022e+23)(10)/(12 + 16)
N = (6.022e+24)/(28)
N = 2.15e+23

Therefore, the normally occupied positions is 2.15e+23.

Calculating the Density when the Normally Occupied Positions, the Avogadro’s Number, the Atomic Weights is Given.

ρ = N (AK + AG) / NA

Where;

ρ = Density
N = Normally Occupied Positions
NA = Avogadro’s Number
AK, AG = Atomic Weights

Let’s solve an example;
Given that normally occupied positions is 20, the avogadro’s number is 6.022e+23, atomic weights is 18, 6.

This implies that;

N = Normally Occupied Positions =20
NA = Avogadro’s Number = 6.022e+23
AK, AG = Atomic Weights = 18, 6

ρ = N (AK + AG) / NA
ρ = 20 (18 + 6) / 6.022e+23
ρ = 20 (24) / 6.022e+23
ρ = 480 / 6.022e+23
ρ = 7.970e-22

Therefore, the density is 7.970e-22.

## How to Calculate and Solve for Schottky Defect | Ceramics

The image above represents schottky defect.

To compute for schottky defect, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are N, Activation energy (Qs), Boltzmann’s Constant (K) and Temperature (T).

The formula for calculating schottky defect:

Ns = N exp (-Qs/2KT)

Where:

Qs = Activation Energy
K = Boltzmann’s Constant
T = Temperature

Let’s solve an example;
Find the schottky defect when the activation energy is 44, N is 22, boltzmann’s constant is 1.38064852E-23 and the temperature is 30.

This implies that;

N = 22
Qs = Activation Energy = 44
K = Boltzmann’s Constant = 1.38054852E-23
T = Temperature = 30

Ns = N exp (-Qs/2KT)
Ns = (22)exp(-(44)/2(1.38064852e-23)(30))
Ns = (22)exp((-44)/(8.283891119e-22))
Ns = (22)exp(-5.3115135583771414e+22)
Ns = (22)(0)
Ns = 0

Therefore, the schottky defect is 0.

Calculating the N when the Schottky Defect, the Activation Energy, the Boltzmann’s Constant and the Temperature is Given.

N = Ns / e (-Qs / 2KT)

Where;

Ns = Schottky Defect
Qs = Activation Energy
K = Boltzmann’s Constant
T = Temperature

Let’s solve an example;
Find the N when the schottky defect is 40, the activation energy is 24, the boltzmann’s constant is 1.38064852E-23 and the temperature is 10.

This implies that;

Ns = Schottky Defect = 40
Qs = Activation Energy = 24
K = Boltzmann’s Constant = 1.38064852E-23
T = Temperature = 10

N = Ns / e (-Qs / 2KT)
N = 40 / e (-24 / 2 x 1.38064852E-23 x 10)
N = 40 / e (-24 / 2.76129704E+23)
N = 40 / e (8.691567e-23)
N = 40 / 8.691567e+23
N = 4.602e-23

Therefore, the is 4.602e-23.

## How to Calculate and Solve for Relative Freezing Time | Foundry Technology

The image above represents relative freezing time.

To compute for relative freezing time, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Constant (L), Constant (C), Volume of Riser/Volume of Casting (y) and Relative Contraction of Freezing (B).

The formula for calculating relative freezing time:

x = L / y – B + C

Where:

x = Relative Freezing Time
y = Volume of Riser / Volume of Casting
B = Relative Contraction on Freezing
C = Constant
L = Constant

Let’s solve an example;
Find the relative freezing time when the volume of riser/volume of casting is 26, the relative contraction on freezing is 21, the constant is 8 and the constant is 11.

This implies that;

y = Volume of Riser / Volume of Casting = 26
B = Relative Contraction on Freezing = 21
C = Constant = 11
L = Constant = 8

x = L / y – B + C
x = 8 / 26 – 21 + 11
x = 8 / 5 + 11
x = 1.6 + 11
x = 12.6

Therefore, the relative freezing time is 12.6 s.

Calculating the Constant (L) when the Relative Freezing Time, Constant (C), the Volume of riser/Volume of Casting and the Relative Contraction on Freezing is Given.

L = x (y – B) – C

Where;

L = Constant
x = Relative Freezing Time
y = Volume of riser / Volume of Casting
B = Relative Contraction on Freezing
C = Constant

Let’s solve an example;
Find the Constant when the relative freezing time is 24, the volume of riser / volume of casting is 14, the relative contraction on freezing is 8 and the constant is 10.

This implies that;

x = Relative Freezing Time = 24
y = Volume of riser / Volume of Casting = 14
B = Relative Contraction on Freezing = 8
C = Constant = 10

L = x (y -B) – C
L = 24 (14 – 8) – 10
L = 24 (6) – 10
L = 144 – 10
L = 134

Therefore, the constant is 134.

## How to Calculate and Solve for Frenkel Defect | Ceramics

The image above represents frenkel defect.

To compute for frenkel defect, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are N, activation energy (Qfr), Boltzmann’s Constant (K) and temperature (T).

The formula for calculating the frenkel defect:

Nfr = N exp (-Qfr / 2KT)

Where:

Nfr = Frenkel Defect
Qfr = Activation Energy
K = Boltzmann’s Constant
T = Temperature

Let’s solve an example;
Find the frenkel defect when the activation energy is 34, N is 22, Temperature is 12 and the boltzmann’s constant is 1.38064852e-23.

This implies that;

Qfr = Activation Energy
K = Boltzmann’s Constant
T = Temperature

Nfr = N exp (-Qfr / 2KT)
Nfr = (22)exp(-(34) / 2(1.38064852e-23)(14))
Nfr = (22)exp((-34) / (3.865815856e-22))
Nfr = (22)exp(-8.795038684325786e+22)
Nfr = (22)(0)
Nfr = 0

Therefore, the frenkel defect is 0.

Calculating the Activation Energy when the Frenkel Defect, the Boltzmann’s Constant and the Temperature is Given.

Qfr = – (In (Nfr / N) x 2KT)

Where;

Qfr = Activation Energy
Nfr = Frenkel Defect
K = Boltzmann’s Constant
T = Temperature

Let’s solve an example;
Given that the frenkel defect is 20, the boltzmann’s constant is 5, the temperature is 2 and N is 10. Find the activation energy?

This implies that;

Nfr = Frenkel Defect = 20
K = Boltzmann’s Constant = 5
T = Temperature = 2
N = 10

Qfr = – (In (Nfr / N) x 2KT)
Qfr = – (In (20 / 10) x 2 x 5 x 2)
Qfr = – (In 2 x 20)
Qfr = – (In 40)
Qfr = – 3.688

Therefore, the activation energy is – 3.688.

## How to Calculate and Solve for Pouring Speed | Design of Gating System

The image above represents pouring speed.

To compute for poring speed, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Co-efficient for friction (μ), Acceleration due to Gravity (g) and Rated head static (Hs).

The formula for calculating pouring speed:

v = μ√(2gHs)

Where:

v = Pouring Speed
μ = Co-efficient for Friction
g = Acceleration due to Gravity
Hs = Rated Static Head

Let’s solve an example;
Find the pouring speed when the co-efficient for friction is 14, acceleration due to gravity is 9 and rated static head is 16.

This implies that;

μ = Co-efficient for Friction = 14
g = Acceleration due to Gravity = 9
Hs = Rated Static Head = 16

v = μ√(2gHs)
v = 14 x √(2 x 9 x 16)
v = 14 x √(288)
v = 14 x 16.97
v = 237.58

Therefore, the pouring speed is 237.58 m/s.

Calculating the Co-efficient for Friction when the Pouring Speed, the Acceleration due to Gravity and the Rated Static Head is Given.

μ = v / √(2gHs)

Where;

μ = Co-efficient for Friction
v = Pouring Speed
g = Acceleration due to Gravity
Hs = Rated Static Head

Let’s solve an example;
Find the co-efficient for friction when the pouring speed is 24, the acceleration due to gravity is 9 and the rated static head is 11.

This implies that;

v = Pouring Speed = 24
g = Acceleration due to Gravity = 9
Hs = Rated Static Head = 11

μ = v / √(2gHs)
μ = 24 / √(2 x 9 x 11)
μ = 24 / √198
μ = 24 / 14.07
μ = 1.70

Therefore, the co-efficient for friction is 1.70.

## How to Calculate and Solve for True Stress | The Calculator Encyclopedia

The image above represents the true stress.

To compute for the true stress, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are force (F) and instantaneous area (Ai).

The formula for calculating true stress:

σT = F / Ai

Where;
T = True Stress
F = Force
Ai = Instantaneous Area

Let’s solve an example;
Find the true stress when the instantaneous area is 60 with a force of 25.

This implies that;
F = Force = 25
Ai = Instantaneous Area = 60

σT = F / Ai
σT = 25 / 60
σT = 0.416

Therefore, the true stress is 0.416 Pa.

Calculating the Force when True Stress and Instantaneous Area is Given.

F = Ai x σT

Where;
F = Force
σT = True Stress
Ai = Instantaneous Area

Let’s solve an example;
Find the force when the instantaneous area is 30 with a true stress of 15.

This implies that;
σT = True Stress = 15
Ai = Instantaneous Area = 30

F = Ai x σT
F = 30 x 15
F = 450

Therefore, the force is 450.