How to Calculate and Solve for Horizontal Strain | Rock Mechanics

The image above represents horizontal strain.

To compute for horizontal strain, five essential parameters are needed and these parameters are Principal Horizontal Stress Component 1 (σH1), Principal Horizontal Stress Component 2 (σH2), Poisson’s Ratio (v), Vertical Stress (σv) and Young’s Modulus (E).

The formula for calculating the horizontal strain:

εH = H1 – vσH2 – vσv) / E

Where:

εH = Horizontal Strain
σH1 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 1
σH2 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 2
v = Poisson’s Ratio
σv = Vertical Stress
E = Young’s Modulus

Let’s solve an example;
Find the horizontal strain when the principal horizontal stress component 1 is 7, the principal horizontal component 2 is 9, the Poisson’s ratio is 11, the vertical stress is 21 and young’s modulus is 27.

This implies that;

σH1 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 1 = 7
σH2 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 2 = 9
v = Poisson’s Ratio = 11
σv = Vertical Stress = 21
E = Young’s Modulus = 27

εH = H1 – vσH2 – vσv) / E
εH = (7 – 11(9) – 11(21)) / 27
εH = (7 – 99 – 231) / 27
εH = -323 / 27
εH = -11.96

Therefore, the horizontal strain is -11.96.

Calculating the Principal Horizontal Stress Component 1 when the Horizontal Stress, Principal Horizontal Stress Component 2, Poisson’s Ratio, Vertical Stress and Young’s Modulus is Given.

σH1 = (εH x E) + vσH2 + vσv

Where;

σH1 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 1
εH = Horizontal Strain
σH2 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 2
v = Poisson’s Ratio
σv = Vertical Stress
E = Young’s Modulus

Let’s solve an example;
Find the principal horizontal stress component 1 when the horizontal strain is 22, the principal horizontal component 2 is 10, the Poisson’s ratio is 7, the vertical stress is 12 and young’s modulus is 3.

This implies that;

εH = Horizontal Strain = 22
σH2 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 2 = 10
v = Poisson’s Ratio = 7
σv = Vertical Stress = 12
E = Young’s Modulus = 3

σH1 = (εH x E) + vσH2 + vσv
σH1 = (22 x 3) + 7(10) + 7(12)
σH1 = 66 + 70 + 84
σH1 = 220

Therefore, the principal horizontal stress component 1 is 220.

Calculating the Principal Horizontal Stress Component 2 when the Horizontal Stress, Principal Horizontal Stress Component 1, Poisson’s Ratio, Vertical Stress and Young’s Modulus is Given.

σH2 = -(H x E) – σH1 + vσv / v)

Where;

σH2 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 2
εH = Horizontal Strain
σH1 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 1
v = Poisson’s Ratio
σv = Vertical Stress
E = Young’s Modulus

Let’s solve an example;
Find the principal horizontal stress component 2 when the horizontal strain is 28, the principal horizontal component 1 is 14, the Poisson’s ratio is 5, the vertical stress is 17 and young’s modulus is 7.

This implies that;

εH = Horizontal Strain =28
σH1 = Principal Horizontal Stress Component 1 = 14
v = Poisson’s Ratio = 5
σv = Vertical Stress = 17
E = Young’s Modulus = 7

σH2 = -(H x E) – σH1 + vσv / v)
σH2 = -((28 x 7) – 14 + 5(17) / 5)
σH2 = -(196 – 14 + 85 / 5)
σH2 = -(182 + 85 / 5)
σH2 = -(267 / 5)
σH2 = -(53.4)
σH2 = -53.4

Therefore, the principal horizontal stress component 2 is -53.4.

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