The above image represents the reservoir fluid.

To compute for the reservoir fluid, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **External pressure (P _{e}) **and

The formula for calculating the average pressure of the reservoir fluid:

P^{*} = √[^{Pe² + Pwf²} / _{2}]

Where;

P^{*} = Average Pressure

P_{e} = External Pressure

P_{wf} = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure

Let’s solve an example;

Find the average pressure of a reservoir fluid with an external pressure of 19 and Flowing bottom-hole pressure is 15.

This implies that;

P_{e} = External Pressure = 19

P_{wf} = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure = 15

P^{*} = √[^{Pe² + Pwf²} / _{2}]

P^{*} = √[^{19² + 15²} / _{2}]

P^{*} = √[^{361 + 225} / _{2}]

P^{*} = √[^{586} / _{2}]

P^{*} = √[293]

P^{*} = 17.117

Therefore, the **average pressure** is **17.117 psi;.**

**Calculating the External Pressure when the Average Pressure and the Flowing Button-Hole Pressure is Given.**

P_{e} = √[[P^{*} x 2]² – P_{wf}²]

Where;

P_{e} = External Pressure

P^{*} = Average Pressure

P_{wf} = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure

Let’s solve an example;

Find the external pressure of a reservoir fluid with an average pressure of 24 and Flowing bottom-hole pressure is 16.

This implies that;

P^{*} = Average Pressure = 24

P_{wf} = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure = 16

P_{e} = √[[P^{*} x 2]² – P_{wf}²]

P_{e} = √[[24 x 2]² – 16²]

P_{e} = √[2048]

P_{e} = 45.25

Therefore, the **external pressure **is **45.25****.**

**Calculating the Flowing Button-Hole Pressure when the Average Pressure and the External Pressure is Given.**

P_{wf} = √[[P^{*} x 2]² – P_{e}²]

Where;

P_{wf} = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure

P_{e} = External Pressure

P^{*} = Average Pressure

Let’s solve an example;

Find the Flowing bottom-hole pressure of a reservoir fluid with an average pressure of 34 and external pressure is 17.

This implies that;

P^{*} = Average Pressure = 34

P_{e} = External Pressure = 17

P_{wf} = √[[P^{*} x 2]² – P_{e}²]

P_{wf} = √[[34 x 2]² – 17²]

P_{wf} = √[4624 – 289]

P_{wf} = √[4335]

P_{wf} = 65.84

Therefore, the **flowing button-hole pressure **is **65.84.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the average pressure.

To get the answer and workings of the average pressure using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

To get access to the **professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Petroleum **under **Engineering**

Now, Click on **Reservoir Fluid Flow **under **Petroleum**

Now, Click on **Average Pressure**** **under **Reservoir Fluid Flow**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your value, to get the answer for the average pressure according to the respective parameter which are the **External pressure (P _{e}) **and

Now, enter the value appropriately and accordingly for the parameter as required by the **External pressure (P _{e}) **is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the average pressure and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents well drainage area.

To compute for the well drainage area, three essential param xeters are needed and these parameters are **Total Area of Field (A _{T}), Well Flow Rate (q_{w}) **and

The formula for calculating the well drainage area:

A_{w} = A_{r}[^{qw} / _{qr}]

Where;

A_{w} = Well Drainage Area

A_{T} = Total Area of Field

q_{w} = Well Flow Rate

q_{r} = Field Flow Rate

Let’s solve an example;

Find the well drainage area when the total area of field is 11, well flow rate is 9 and the field flow rate is 6.

This implies that;

A_{T} = Total Area of Field = 11

q_{w} = Well Flow Rate = 9

q_{r} = Field Flow Rate = 6

A_{w} = A_{T}[^{qw} / _{qr}]

A_{w} = 11[^{9}/_{6}]

A_{w} = 11[1.5]

A_{w} = 16.5

Therefore, the **well drainage area **is **16.5 ft². **

**Calculating the Total Area of Field when Well Drainage Area, Well Flow Rate and Field Flow Rate is Given.**

A_{T} = A_{w} (^{qr} / _{qw})

Where;

A_{T} = Total Area of Field

A_{w} = Well Drainage Area

q_{w} = Well Flow Rate

q_{r} = Field Flow Rate

Let’s solve an example;

Find the total area of field when the well drainage area is 32, well flow rate is 11 and the field flow rate is 14.

This implies that;

A_{w} = Well Drainage Area = 32

q_{w} = Well Flow Rate = 11

q_{r} = Field Flow Rate = 14

A_{T} = A_{w} (^{qr} / _{qw})

A_{T} = 32 (^{14} / _{11})

A_{T} = 32 (1.272)

A_{T} = 40.704

Therefore, the **total area of field** is **40.704.**

**Calculating the Field Flow Rate when Well Drainage Area, Total Area of Field and Well Flow Rate is Given.**

q_{r} = q_{w} (^{Ar} / _{Aw})

Where;

q_{r} = Field Flow Rate

A_{T} = Total Area of Field

A_{w} = Well Drainage Area

q_{w} = Well Flow Rate

Let’s solve an example;

Find the field flow rate when the well drainage area is 42, total area of field is 32 and the well flow rate is 24.

This implies that;

A_{w} = Well Drainage Area = 42

A_{T} = Total Area of Field = 32

q_{w} = Well Flow Rate = 24

q_{r} = q_{w} (^{AT} / _{Aw})

q_{r} = 24 (^{32} / _{42})

q_{r} = 24 (0.7619)

q_{r} = 18.285

Therefore, the **Field**** Flow Rate** is **18.285.**

**Calculating the Well Flow Rate when Well Drainage Area, Total Area of Field and Field Flow Rate is Given.**

q_{w} = q_{r} (^{Aw} / _{AT})

Where;

q_{w} = Well Flow Rate

q_{r} = Field Flow Rate

A_{w} = Well Drainage Area

A_{T} = Total Area of Field

Let’s solve an example;

Find the well flow rate when the well drainage area is 45, total area of field is 38 and the field flow rate is 44.

This implies that;

q_{r} = Field Flow Rate = 44

A_{w} = Well Drainage Area = 45

A_{T} = Total Area of Field = 38

q_{w} = q_{r} (^{Aw} / _{AT})

q_{w} = 44 (^{45} / _{38})

q_{w} = 44 (1.184)

q_{w} = 52.105

Therefore, the **well flow rate** is **52.105.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the well drainage area

To get the answer and workings of the well drainage area using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

To get access to the **professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Petroleum **under **Engineering**

Now, Click on **Reservoir Fluid Flow **under **Petroleum**

Now, Click on **Well Drainage Area**** **under **Reservoir Fluid Flow**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your value, to get the answer for the well drainage area according to the respective parameter which are the **Total Area of Field (A _{T}), Well Flow Rate (q_{w}) **and

Now, enter the value appropriately and accordingly for the parameter as required by the **Total Area of Field (A _{T})** is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator** – The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the well drainage area and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

On a bright Saturday afternoon of November, 2013 I had just finished doing my chores. I was very tired and just wanted to relax with my very entertaining soccer video game. Yes, I am a FIFA guy, FIFA 14 was hot and I was killing the tournament. I was at the finals of the tournament and there was so much pride, joy and contentment at the level I reached on the very tough game.

As I was about to start the finals match, I heard a knock on my door. Behold, it was my younger sister. She always came to me to help her solve her mathematics problems or assignments. She always complained that the teachers are doing magic when it comes to solving math and she gets lost in the steps. I noticed that after a while of helping her that the teachers do skip some steps when solving the math problem assuming that the students know them but alas most do not.

I have already started the game and I decided to joggle the both activities since the math problem she brought was on quadratic equation which is very simple for me as a second year engineering student. In the process of helping her understand how to use the almighty quadratic formula I was scored twice before half time and at half time I was able to have come back with a goal making it 1–2 (Me Versus Computer). I still pressed forward to the next half and along the way I was scored again and I was so angry. I ignored my sister to focus on just the game to know if I could come back. But I was only able to come back with a goal and the finals ended as 2–3 with me losing the tournament. I was so pissed off. I yelled! My sister on the hand was sad I did not aid her understand how to solve her math problem. She left the room unsatisfied.

In the midst of my vex I wished in my mind that there was something like a calculator encyclopedia that she can always use whenever she has a math problem just like a dictionary. No one would disturb you to tell you the meaning of a word. You simply tell them to go and check their dictionary and that’s all. I thought why is there nothing like that for calculations?

So, throughout the evening, I searched the entire web to check if I could see anything like that but to my surprise there was nothing like that anywhere. I was shocked in a funny way. At that time I had just finished learning web design and development at Afrihub, Enugu, Nigeria. I also had thought myself Java programming language after being exposed to it at Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. In the middle of the night I woke up and decided to just build a desktop app in Java that could solve any quadratic equation and show the steps accurately and comprehensively for anyone to understand very easily. It was crazy because I so much enjoyed developing it. It felt like a spiritual calling in a way.

The next day, I presented the app to her to make use of it. She used it and was able to understand how the process went down without me assisting her in any way possible. I was amazed at how I used my knowledge to solve both of our problems in less than 2 hours. I was free from her disturbing me with questions and she was happy to have a tool she could lean on to understand how the steps of quadratic equation undergoes.

As time went on I was adding more and more calculations to the app and I started developing an immense passion for the work I was doing. I still kept on looking for anyone doing the same thing to know if I can draw inspiration from them but I could not see anyone. My siblings started enjoying the work I was doing.

One day I took the app to my very close friend, Agu Bright. The app blew his mind and he suggested that I make it a web app so that it could be accessible from anywhere in the world online. I decided to do it and behold in a week. I moved the software to web and I was not getting any traction but I was very happy and passionate that at that point I did not care about online number of users. My friends started requesting for calculations I should add for them to the software. The Nickzom Calculator started getting popular amongst my friends.

One evening around March, 2014 my friends, Eze Nnamdi and Ekeh Joel told me that they wished that they would not have to always go online to access Nickzom Calculator can’t I make it into an android mobile app that does not require internet access. At that point I did not know any one that programs for Android OS. It was strange to me but I had a very strong passion for what I was developing I could not back down and relax. I searched for various e-books on how to program for Android. I was lucky to see Android App Development for Dummies. I dedicated a whole lot of my time on studying the e-book I completely neglected my **duty** as a student and the reason I was in school. I skipped a lot of classes and tutorials. I focused on my **passion** and stayed indoors for a whole month and afterwards the first version of the app was ready.

The design of the first version of the mobile app was very poor but every other thing was working. I remember launching it online and I got a lot of good reviews for the effort but a lot of complaints about the design. I kept on working on all the three platforms simultaneously (desktop app, web app and android app), adding more contents and feeding my **passion** with everything while completely neglecting my **duties**.

One faithful night, I got a call and it was a foreign number. I was amazed and wondered why I would be getting such a call in the middle of the night. I picked up the phone and behold it was an Indian lady. She was calling me to immensely thank me for the work on my app and how it saved her. How it made her start to enjoy mathematics. She thanked and thanked me. When the call was over I was so overwhelmed with joy. How majestic for my passion for this idea of developing the world’s first calculator encyclopedia bring me so much joy, I wandered. I started seeing a **purpose** as to why I had such an occurrence with my sister. I was fulfilled with a definite **purpose** like it was divine. Is this why I am on earth, I asked myself.

When, the time for exams came for the first semester of my 300 level as an Electrical/Electronic Engineering student, I was very scared and less confident than usual. I had completely neglected my **duties** as a student. I started to see a very big problem, although at that point I was no longer a first class student but I was very close and I know deep down that I had to graduate with a first class to make my parents proud of me. My mum always kept telling me, “Chinazom, I believe in your capabilities. If you want to be the best graduating student you can. It is all in your hands and depends solely on you.” So imagine how it would have been to not come out with a first class at all. I started catching up with my **duties** but my **passion** was calling constantly. I was completely divided in two.

I did my best with my duties till the exams where over but deep down I knew I could have done better. Once, the exams where over I went straight back to my **passion** which was leading to a big **purpose** chase.

After which my CGPA started to get highly unstable, moving around 4.50 to 4.42 and in between I started to get worried that I might not come out with a first class if I am not careful but with a very bitter cry second class that is close to first class. Although, I sincerely did not care I was worried for my mum because it felt like it was my **duty**.

By October, 2015, Nickzom Calculator was able to solve over 6,000 calculations. I was glad with what I had achieved and I wanted to showcase it to the world so I decided to try advertisements. I had worked so hard and saved up to NGN 100,000. So I decided to do All In or Nothing like I watched in a Nike Commercial. I tried Google Adwords and invested the whole money into it and in 1 week I lost everything. After that, I fell into a very deep depression. I could not believe it. My whole money was gone and I got nothing in return. I wandered what is the meaning of this? I decided to stop developing the app and kill everything. I slept and watched movies and was so angry with myself for about 3 months.

I was so dying to continue working on Nickzom Calculator but I kept asking myself is there any point? I am not even making money from it and **passion**alone would not feed me but if I accomplish my **duty** as a student and graduate with a first class I would get a good job and feed myself and my family. I guess, the depression was bad.

By December, 2015, after Christmas, I met up with one of the greatest friends I have ever had, Okenyi Dominic Chukwudi. I showed him the app and told him about my hustle. He laughed and said that it’s clear I have a huge **passion**for what I was developing and it sincerely has a **purpose**. He said no great thing is easy to come by and if I am facing this kind of obstacle then it means that I am developing something really great and awesome. He gave me so much wisdom and I started running my thoughts wildly and decided to pick up the pieces and try once again. Chukwudi then linked me to someone who linked me to another person. He said the person is an expert and he would guide me on how to develop the app to be worthy of my time.

After a while, in the early days of 2016 I met the specific individual. He had a fancy office and was very calm. I showed him my work and he said he loves it but there is a problem. The problem is that Nickzom Calculator cannot be profitable. He vividly told me that Nickzom Calculator could not generate NGN 5,000 in a year. I was disappointed but not derailed. I had picked myself up and developed a very thick skin.

I went back to school, to finish up my studies. From the beginning of my final year first semester I was so very much not interested in school or my **duty**. All I wanted to do was follow my **passion** but I could not just drop out from school. I so badly wanted to drop out and prove that individual wrong by channeling everything I had to my **purpose.** I was so drawn between my **duty**and **passion**. I fell into another depression.

I remember walking back to my lodge one day from school and I was so filled with my thoughts. I was completely lost in my mind and ostracized from the outside world. A very big truck was moving towards me from behind and was honking and honking but I did not hear anything. On coming closer, a stranger had to speedily drag me out of the way and I could feel the truck pass me by and on coming back to the environment I heard everyone shouting and cursing but the striking thing was, my first thought. My first thought was for the truck to have killed me at least all my worries would have ended quietly. On recovery from that thought I knew I was in a very big mess and it’s really deep.

I summoned the courage to tell my mom that I wanted to drop out of school. My mom could not believe it she almost shed tears and wondered out loud how can my 20 years old son with a 4.45 CGPA in final year studying Electrical/Electronic Engineering think of dropping out. She asked, “Are you certain you are Ok?” I said yes. I could see her point of view but I was blinded by **passion** to view my **duty**. My mom was so worried so I decided to learn time management skills because she started seeing the fact that her son is a programmer as a problem. I started reading a lot of books on time management and I finally decided to use my mom as a motivational factor to fulfill my duty of graduating with a first class.

I successfully learnt how to manage my time in attending both to my **duty** and **purpose**. The design of my app got better I had over 10,000 calculations implemented in Nickzom Calculator by May, 2016 and my CGPA was coming up. I even started enjoying engineering courses the way I used to. I faced a lot of obstacles but with the knowledge of time management I was able to successfully use it to come ahead.

By December, 2016, I graduated with first class honors in Electrical/Electronic Engineering at Federal University of Technology, Owerri. My app was doing well with contents although revenue had not yet started coming up but I was fulfilled. I accomplished my duty. My **passion** made me known amongst a lot of people and I got a lot of contracts to develop software services for people which made me earn my own money as a student and I had a purpose for my life which is to develop the world’s first Virtual Teacher Calculator Encyclopedia App.

I finished my service to the nation on October, 2018 and My app now has a source of generating revenue through its professional version Nickzom Calculator+ which is available on Google Play Store and Apple App Store for $25.99 and Web for NGN 1,500 per year.

Nickzom Calculator+ can now solve over 50,000 calculations. Nickzom Calculator (free and limited version) has over 20,000 installs on Google Play Store with a 4.7 out of 5.0 rating from over 189 users. It led me to the 2017 West Africa Mobile Awards, Lagos and has been featured on Channels TV, Techpoint.ng, and LindaIkeji.

I am currently nowhere in completing my **purpose** but as long as this **passion **burns within me I am on the right path.

**App URLs**

Web – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

Android (Free) – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

Android (Paid) – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

Apple iOS (Paid) – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?ls=1&mt=8

**Reference:**

This article was culled from our Founder and CEO, **Idoko Nicholas Chinazom**‘s medium account. Link – https://medium.com/@idokonicholaschinazom/passion-purpose-and-duty-ac6146679d17 November 26, 2018

The image above represents the reservoir radius.

To compute for the reservoir radius, one essential parameter is needed and this parameter is **Well Spacing (A).**

The formula for calculating the reservoir radius:

r_{e} = √[^{43560A } / _{π}]

Where;

r_{e} = Reservoir Radius

A = Well Spacing

Let’s solve an example;

Given that the well spacing of an reservoir radius is 42. Find the reservoir radius?

This implies that;

A = Well Spacing = 42

r_{e} = √[^{43560A } / _{π}]

r_{e} = √[^{43560 x 42 }/ _{π}]

r_{e} = √[^{1829520 }/ _{π}]

r_{e} = √582354.3

r_{e} = 763.12

Therefore, the **reservoir radius **is **763.12 ft.**

**Calculating the well spacing (A) when the Reservoir Radius is Given.**

A = ^{π x re2} / _{43560}

Where;

A = Well Spacing

r_{e} = Reservoir Radius

Let’s solve an example;

Find the well spacing when the reservoir radius is 60.

This implies that;

r_{e} = Reservoir Radius = 60

A = ^{π x re2} / _{43560}

A = ^{π x 602} / _{43560}

A = ^{π x 3600} / _{43560}

A = ^{11309.73} / _{43560}

A = 0.259

Therefore, the **well spacing **is **0.259.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the reservoir radius.

To get the answer and workings of the reservoir radius using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

To get access to the **professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Petroleum **under **Engineering**

Now, Click on **Reservoir Fluid Flow **under **Petroleum**

Now, Click on **Reservoir Radius**** **under **Reservoir Fluid Flow**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your value, to get the answer for the reservoir radius according to the respective parameter which are the **well spacing (A).**

Now, enter the value appropriately and accordingly for the parameter as required by the **well spacing (A) **is **42.**

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator** – The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the reservoir radius and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents the radial flow rate.

To compute for the radial flow rate, eight essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **External Pressure (P _{e}), Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure (P_{wf}), Formation Thickness (h), Oil Viscosity (μ_{o} ), Permeability (k), Oil Formation Volume Factor (B_{o}), Drainage Radius (r_{e}) **and

The formula for calculating the radial flow rate:

Q_{o} = ^{0.00708kh[Pe – Pwf]} / _{μo Bo In[re / rw]}

Where;

Q_{o} = Radial Flow Rate

P_{e} = External Pressure

P_{wf} = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure

h = Formation Thickness

μ_{o} = Oil Viscosity

k = Permeability

B_{o} = Oil Formation Volume Factor

r_{e} = Drainage Radius

r_{w} = Well Bore Radius

Let’s solve an example;

Find the radial flow rate when the External Pressure is 14, Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure is 21, Formation Thickness is 7, Oil Viscosity is 35, Permeability is 50, Oil Formation Volume Factor is 13, Drainage Radius is 26 and Well Bore Radius is 15.

This implies that;

P_{e} = External Pressure = 14

P_{wf} = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure = 21

h = Formation Thickness = 7

μ_{o} = Oil Viscosity = 35

k = Permeability = 50

B_{o} = Oil Formation Volume Factor = 13

r_{e} = Drainage Radius = 26

r_{w} = Well Bore Radius = 15

Q_{o} = ^{0.00708kh[Pe – Pwf]} / _{μo Bo In[re / rw]
}Q_{o} = ^{0.00708 x 50 x 7 [14 – 21] }/ _{35 x 13 In[26 / 15]
}Q_{o} = ^{0.00708 x 50 x 7 [-7] }/ _{35 x 13 In[26 / 15]
}Q_{o} = ^{0.00708 x 50 x 7 [-7] }/ _{35 x 13 In[1.73]
}Q_{o} = ^{0.00708 x 50 x 7 [-7] }/_{35 x 13 x 0.55
}Q_{o} = ^{2.478 [-7] }/ _{35 x 13 x 0.55
}Q_{o} = ^{-17.346 }/ _{250.27
}Q_{o} = -0.069

Therefore, the **radial flow rate** is **-0.069** ^{STB}/_{day}.

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the radial flow rate

To get the answer and workings of the radial flow rate using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Petroleum **under **Engineering**

Now, Click on **Reservoir Fluid Flow **under **Petroleum**

Now, Click on **Radial**** Flow Rate**** **under **Reservoir Fluid Flow**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your value, to get the answer for the radial flow rate according to the respective parameter which are the **External Pressure (P _{e}), Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure (P_{wf}), Formation Thickness (h), Oil Viscosity (μ_{o} ), Permeability (k), Oil Formation Volume Factor (B_{o}), Drainage Radius (r_{e}) **and

Now, enter the value appropriately and accordingly for the parameter as required by the **External Pressure (P _{e})** is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator** – The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the radial flow rate and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents the linear flow rate.

To compute for the linear flow rate, four parameters are needed and these parameters are **I****nitial pressure (P _{1}), Final Pressure (P_{2}), Thickness (h) **and

The formula for calculating linear flow rate:

q = 0.001127kh[P_{1} – P_{2}]

Where:

q = Linear Flow Rate

P_{1} = Initial Pressure

P_{2} = Final Pressure

h = Thickness

k = Permeability

Let’s solve an example;

Find the linear flow rate when the initial pressure is 12, final pressure is 22, thickness is 18 and permeability is 44.

This implies that;

P_{1} = Initial Pressure = 12

P_{2} = Final Pressure = 22

h = Thickness = 18

k = Permeability = 44

q = 0.001127kh [P_{1} – P_{2}]

q = 0.001127 x 44 x 18 [12 – 22]

q = 0.001127 x 44 x 18 [-10]

q = 0.892584 [-10]

q = -8.92584

Therefore, the **linear flow rate** is **-8.92584** ^{bbl}/_{day}.

**Calculating Permeability when the linear flow rate, Initial Pressure, Final Pressure and Thickness is Given.**

k = ^{q} / _{0.001127h (p1 – p2)}

Where;

k = Permeability

q = Linear Flow Rate

P_{1} = Initial Pressure

P_{2} = Final Pressure

h = Thickness

Let’s solve an example;

Find the permeability when the initial pressure is 34, final pressure is 24, thickness is 12 and linear flow rate is 50.

This implies that;

q = Linear Flow Rate = 50

P_{1} = Initial Pressure = 34

P_{2} = Final Pressure = 24

h = Thickness = 12

k = ^{q} / _{0.001127h (p1 – p2)}

k = ^{50} / _{0.001127h (34 – 24)}

k = ^{50} / _{0.001127h (10)}

k = ^{50} / _{0.01127}

k = 4436.5

Therefore, the **permeability** is **4436.5.**

**Calculating Thickness when the linear flow rate, Initial Pressure, Final Pressure and Permeability is Given.**

h = ^{q} / _{0.001127k (p1 – p2)}

Where;

h = Thickness

k = Permeability

q = Linear Flow Rate

P_{1} = Initial Pressure

P_{2} = Final Pressure

Let’s solve an example;

Find the thickness when the initial pressure is 24, final pressure is 12, permeability is 20 and linear flow rate is 30.

This implies that;

k = Permeability = 20

q = Linear Flow Rate = 30

P_{1} = Initial Pressure = 24

P_{2} = Final Pressure = 12

h = ^{q} / _{0.001127k (p1 – p2)}

h = ^{30} / _{0.001127 x 20 (24 – 12)}

h = ^{30} / _{0.02254 (12)}

h = ^{30} / _{0.27048}

h = 110.9

Therefore, the **thickness** is **110.9.**

**Calculating Initial Pressure when the linear flow rate, Thickness , Final Pressure and Permeability is Given.**

p_{1} = ^{q} / _{0.001127kh + p2}

Where;

P_{1} = Initial Pressure

q = Linear Flow Rate

h = Thickness

k = Permeability

P_{2} = Final Pressure

Let’s solve an example;

Find the initial pressure when the thickness is 16, final pressure is 20, permeability is 24 and linear flow rate is 70.

This implies that;

q = Linear Flow Rate = 70

h = Thickness = 16

k = Permeability = 24

P_{2} = Final Pressure = 20

p_{1} = ^{q} / _{0.001127kh + p2}

p_{1} = ^{70} / _{0.001127 x 24 x 16 + 20}

p_{1} = ^{70} / _{20.432768}

p_{1} = 3.425

Therefore, the **initial pressure** is **3.425.**

**Calculating Final Pressure when the linear flow rate, Thickness , Initial Pressure and Permeability is Given.**

p_{2} = p_{1} – ^{q} / _{0.001127kh}

Where;

P_{2} = Final Pressure

P_{1} = Initial Pressure

q = Linear Flow Rate

h = Thickness

k = Permeability

Let’s solve an example;

Find the final pressure when the thickness is 15, initial pressure is 28, permeability is 17 and linear flow rate is 56.

This implies that;

P_{1} = Initial Pressure = 28

q = Linear Flow Rate = 56

h = Thickness = 15

k = Permeability = 17

p_{2} = p_{1} – ^{q} / _{0.001127kh}

p_{2} = 28 – ^{56} / _{0.001127 x 15 x 17}

p_{2} = 28 – ^{56} / _{0.28735}

p_{2} = 28 – 194.88

p_{2} = -166.88

Therefore, the **final pressure** is **-166.88.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the linear flow rate

To get the answer and workings of the linear flow rate using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Petroleum **under **Engineering**

Now, Click on **Reservoir Fluid Flow **under **Petroleum**

Now, Click on **Linear Flow Rate**** **under **Reservoir Fluid Flow**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your value, to get the answer for the linear flow rate according to the respective parameter which are the **I****nitial pressure (P _{1}), Final Pressure (P_{2}), Thickness (h) **and

Now, enter the value appropriately and accordingly for the parameter as required by the **I****nitial pressure (P _{1})** is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator** – The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the linear flow rate and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents the fluid potential.

To compute for the fluid potential, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **pressure (P), Datum Levels (ΔZ) **and **Density (ρ).**

The formula for calculating fluid potential:

φ = P – [^{ρ} / _{144}]ΔZ

Where;

φ = Fluid Potential

P = Pressure

ΔZ = Datum Levels

ρ = Density

Let’s solve an example;

Find the fluid potential when the pressure is 24 with a datum level of 18 and the density of 30.

This implies that;

P = Pressure = 24

ΔZ = Datum Levels = 18

ρ = Density = 30

φ = P – [^{ρ} / _{144}]ΔZ

φ = 24 – [^{30}/_{144}] 18

φ = 24 – [0.2083] 18

φ = 24 – 3.75

φ = 20.25

Therefore, the fluid potential is **20.25**.

**Calculating the Pressure(P) when the fluid potential, Datum levels and Density is Given.**

P = φ – [^{ρ} / _{144}]ΔZ

Where;

P = Pressure

φ = Fluid Potential

ΔZ = Datum Levels

ρ = Density

Lets solve an example;

Find the pressure with a fluid potential of 40 and a datum levels of 18 with density of 24.

This implies that;

φ = Fluid Potential = 40

ΔZ = Datum Levels = 18

ρ = Density = 24

P = φ – [^{ρ} / _{144}]ΔZ

P = 40 – [^{24} / _{144}]18

P = 40 – [0.167]18

P = 40 – 3

P = 37

Therefore, the **pressure** is **37.**

**Calculating the Datum levels(ΔZ) when the fluid potential, Pressure and Density is Given.**

ΔZ = ^{(θ – P) 144} / _{p}

Where;

ΔZ = Datum Levels

φ = Fluid Potential

P = Pressure

ρ = Density

Let’s solve an example;

Find the datum levels with a fluid potential of 50, a pressure of 25 and density of 14.

This implies that;

φ = Fluid Potential = 50

P = Pressure = 25

ρ = Density = 14

ΔZ = ^{(θ – P) 144} / _{p}

ΔZ = ^{(50 – 25) 144} / _{14}

ΔZ = ^{(25) 144} / _{14}

ΔZ = ^{3600} / _{14}

ΔZ = 257.14

Therefore, the **datum levels** is **257.14**.

**Calculating the Density ( p) when the fluid potential, Pressure and Datum levels is Given.**

*p* = ^{(θ – P) 144} / _{ΔZ}

Where;

ρ = Density

ΔZ = Datum Levels

φ = Fluid Potential

P = Pressure

Let’s solve an example;

Find the density with a fluid potential of 62, pressure of 36 and datum levels of 24.

This implies that;

φ = Fluid Potential = 62

ΔZ = Datum Levels = 24

P = Pressure = 36

*p* = ^{(θ – P) 144} / _{ΔZ}

*p* = ^{(62 – 36) 144} / _{24}

*p* = ^{(26) 144} / _{24}

*p* = ^{3744} / _{24}

*p* = 156

Therefore, the **density** is **156.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the fluid potential.

To get the answer and workings of the fluid potential using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Petroleum **under **Engineering**

Now, Click on **Reservoir Fluid Flow **under **Petroleum**

Now, Click on **Fluid Potential **under **Reservoir Fluid Flow**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your value, to get the answer for the fluid potential according to the respective parameter which are the **pressure (P), Datum Levels (ΔZ) **and **Density (ρ).**

Now, enter the value appropriately and accordingly for the parameter as required by the **pressure (P)** is **24**,** Datum Levels (ΔZ) **is **18 **and **Density (ρ)** is **30**.

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator** – The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the fluid potential and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents the true stress.

To compute for the true stress, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **force (F)** and **instantaneous area (A _{i})**.

The formula for calculating true stress:

σ_{T} = ^{F} / _{Ai}

Where;

_{T} = True Stress

F = Force

A_{i} = Instantaneous Area

Let’s solve an example;

Find the true stress when the instantaneous area is 60 with a force of 25.

This implies that;

F = Force = 25

A_{i} = Instantaneous Area = 60

σ_{T} = ^{F} / _{Ai}

σ_{T} = ^{25} / _{60}

σ_{T} = 0.416

Therefore, the **true stress** is **0.416 Pa**.

**Calculating the Force when True Stress and Instantaneous Area is Given.**

F = A_{i} x σ_{T}

Where;

F = Force

σ_{T} = True Stress

A_{i} = Instantaneous Area

Let’s solve an example;

Find the force when the instantaneous area is 30 with a true stress of 15.

This implies that;

σ_{T} = True Stress = 15

A_{i} = Instantaneous Area = 30

F = A_{i} x σ_{T}

F = 30 x 15

F = 450

Therefore, the **force** is **450.**

**Calculating the Instantaneous Area when True Stress and Force is Given.**

A_{i} = ^{F} / _{σT}

Where;

A_{i} = Instantaneous Area

F = Force

σ_{T} = True Stress

Let’s solve an example;

Find the instantaneous area when the force is 440 with a true stress of 22.

This implies that;

σ_{T} = True Stress = 22

F = Force = 440

A_{i} = ^{F} / _{σT}

A_{i} = ^{440} / _{22}

A_{i} = 20

Therefore, the **instantaneous area** is **20**.

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the true stress.

To get the answer and workings of the true stress using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Material & Metallurgical **under **Engineering**

Now, Click on **Mechanical Properties **under **Material & Metallurgical**

Click on **True Stress**** **under **Material & Metallurgical**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your value, to get the answer for the true stress according to the respective parameter which are the **force (F)** and **instantaneous area (A _{i})**.

Now, enter the value appropriately and accordingly for the parameter as required by the **force (F) **is **25**** **and **instantaneous area (A _{i}) **is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator** – The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the true stress and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents the maximum velocity to avoid overturning of a vehicle moving along a level circular path.

To compute for the maximum velocity, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Acceleration due to Gravity (g), Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level (h), Radius of Circular Path (r) and Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel (a).**

The formula for calculating the maximum velocity:

v_{max} = √(^{gra} / _{h})

Where:

v_{max} = Maximum Velocity to avoid Overturning of a Vehicle moving along a Level Circular Path

g = Acceleration due to Gravity

h = Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level

r = Radius of Circular Path

a = Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel

Let’s solve an example;

Find the maximum velocity when the Acceleration due to Gravity (g) is 10.2, Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level (h) is 14, Radius of Circular Path (r) is 22 and Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel (a) is 32.

This implies that;

g = Acceleration due to Gravity = 10.2

h = Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level = 14

r = Radius of Circular Path = 22

a = Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel = 32

v_{max} = √(^{gra} / _{h})

v_{max} = √(^{(10.2)(22)(32)}/_{14})

v_{max} = √(^{(7180.79)}/_{14})

v_{max} = √(512.91)

v_{max} = 22.647

Therefore, the **maximum velocity to avoid Overturning of a Vehicle moving along a Level Circular Path** is **22.647 m/s.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the maximum velocity to avoid overturning of a vehicle moving along a level circular path.

To get the answer and workings of the maximum velocity to avoid overturning of a vehicle moving along a level circular path using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Mechanics **under **Engineering**

Now, Click on **Motion of Circular Path **under **Mechanics**

Click on **M****aximum Velocity to avoid overturning of a vehicle moving along a level circular path**** **under **Motion of Circular Path**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your value, to get the answer for the maximum velocity to avoid overturning of a vehicle moving along a level circular path according to the respective parameter which are the **Acceleration due to Gravity (g), Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level (h), Radius of Circular Path (r) and Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel (a).**

Now, enter the value appropriately and accordingly for the parameter as required by the** Acceleration due to Gravity (g)** is **10.2**,** Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level (h)** is **14**,** Radius of Circular Path (r)** is **22**** and Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel (a)** is **32**.

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator** – The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the maximum velocity to avoid overturning of a vehicle moving along a level circular path and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image represents reaction at the inner wheel of a vehicle moving along a level circular path.

To compute for the reaction, six essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Mass of the Vechicle (m), Acceleration due to Gravity (g), Velocity of the Vehicle (v), Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level (h), Radius of Circular Path (r) and Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel (a).**

The formula for calculating the reaction at the inner wheel of a vehicle moving along a level circular path:

R_{A} = ^{mg} / _{2}[1 – ^{v²h} / _{gra}]

Where:

R_{A} = Reaction at the Inner Wheel of a Vehicle moving along a Level Circular Path

m = Mass of the Vechicle

g = Acceleration due to Gravity

v = Velocity of the Vehicle

h = Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level

r = Radius of Circular Path

a = Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel

Let’s solve an example;

Find the reaction when Mass of the Vechicle (m) is 13, Acceleration due to Gravity (g) is 9.8, Velocity of the Vehicle (v) is 11, Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level (h) is 5, Radius of Circular Path (r) is 7 and Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel (a) is 3.

This implies that;

m = Mass of the Vechicle = 13

g = Acceleration due to Gravity = 9.8

v = Velocity of the Vehicle = 11

h = Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level = 5

r = Radius of Circular Path = 7

a = Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel = 3

R_{A} = ^{mg} / _{2}[1 – ^{v²h} / _{gra}]

RA = ^{13(9.8)} / _{2}[1 – ^{(11)²(5)} / _{(9.8)(7)(3)}]

RA = ^{127.4} / _{2}[1 – ^{(121)(5)} / _{205.8}]

RA = 63.7[1 – ^{605} / _{205.8}]

RA = 63.7[1 – 2.939]

RA = 63.7[-1.939]

RA = -123.56

Therefore, the **reaction at the inner wheel of a vehicle moving along a level of circular path** is **-123.56 N.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the reaction of the inner wheel of a vehicle moving along a level circular path.

To get the answer and workings of the reaction of the inner wheel of a vehicle moving along a level circular path using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Mechanics **under **Engineering**

Now, Click on **Motion of Circular Path **under **Mechanics**

Click on **Reaction of the inner wheel of a vehicle moving along a level circular path**** **under **Motion of Circular Path**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your value, to get the answer for the reaction of the inner wheel of a vehicle moving along a level circular path according to the respective parameter which are the **Mass of the Vechicle (m), Acceleration due to Gravity (g), Velocity of the Vehicle (v), Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level (h), Radius of Circular Path (r) and Half of the Distance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel (a).**

Now, enter the value appropriately and accordingly for the parameter as required by the **Mass of the Vechicle (m)** is **13**, **Acceleration due to Gravity (g)** is **9.8**, **Velocity of the Vehicle (v)** is **11**, **Height of Centre of Gravity of the Vehicle from Ground Level (h)** is **5**, **Radius of Circular Path (r)** is **7** and **Half of the Di****stance between the Centre Lines of the Wheel (a)** is **3**.

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator** – The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the reaction of the inner wheel of a vehicle moving along a level circular path and presents the formula, workings and steps too.