The image above represents length of well screen.

To compute for length of well screen, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well (Q _{o}), Effective Open Area per Metre (A_{o}) and Entrance Velocity at the Screen (V_{e}).**

The formula for calculating length of well screen:

L = ^{Qo} / _{AoVe}

Where:

L = Length of Well Screen

Q_{o} = Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well

A_{o} = Effective Open Area per Metre

V_{e} = Entrance Velocity at the Screen

Let’s solve an example;

Find the length of well screen when the maximum expected discharge capacity of well is 12, the effective open area per metre is 24 and the entrance velocity at the screen is 18.

This implies that;

Q_{o} = Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well

A_{o} = Effective Open Area per Metre

V_{e} = Entrance Velocity at the Screen

L = ^{Qo} / _{AoVe}

L = ^{12} / _{(24)(18)}

L = ^{12} / _{432}

L = 0.027

Therefore, the **length of well screen **is **0.027.**

**Calculating the Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well when the Length of Well Screen, the Effective Open Area per Metre and the Entrance Velocity at the Screen is Given.**

Q_{o} = L x (A_{o}V_{e})

Where;

Q_{o} = Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well

L = Length of Well Screen

A_{o} = Effective Open Area per Metre

V_{e} = Entrance Velocity at the Screen

Let’s solve an example;

Find the maximum expected discharge capacity of well with a length of well screen as 21, effective open area per metre as 10 and entrance velocity at the screen as 5.

This implies that;

L = Length of Well Screen = 21

A_{o} = Effective Open Area per Metre = 10

V_{e} = Entrance Velocity at the Screen = 5

Q_{o} = L x (A_{o}V_{e})

Q_{o} = 21 x (10 x 5)

Q_{o} = 21 x 50

Q_{o} = 1050

Therefore, the **maximum expected discharge capacity of well **is **1050.**

**Calculating the Effective Open Area per Metre when the Length of Well Screen, the Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well and the Entrance Velocity at the Screen is Given.**

A_{o} = ^{(Qo / L)} / _{Ve}

Where;

A_{o} = Effective Open Area per Metre

L = Length of Well Screen

Q_{o} = Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well

V_{e} = Entrance Velocity at the Screen

Let’s solve an example;

Find the Effective Open area per metre when the length of well screen is 15, the maximum expected discharge capacity of well is 30 and the entrance velocity at the screen is 3.

This implies that;

L = Length of Well Screen = 15

Q_{o} = Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well = 30

V_{e} = Entrance Velocity at the Screen = 3

A_{o} = ^{(Qo / L)} / _{Ve}

A_{o} = ^{(30 / 15)} / _{3}

A_{o} = ^{2} / _{3}

A_{o} = 0.67

Therefore, the **effective open area per metre** is **0.67.**

**Calculating the Entrance Velocity at the Screen when the Length of Well Screen, the Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well and the Effective Open Area per Metre is Given.**

V_{e} = ^{(Qo / L)} / _{Ao}

Where;

V_{e} = Entrance Velocity at the Screen

L = Length of Well Screen

Q_{o} = Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well

A_{o} = Effective Open Area per Metre

Let’s solve an example;

Given that the length of well screen is 6, the maximum expected discharge capacity of well is 24 and the effective open area per metre is 2. Find the entrance velocity at the screen?

This implies that;

L = Length of Well Screen = 6

Q_{o} = Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well = 24

A_{o} = Effective Open Area per Metre = 2

V_{e} = ^{(Qo / L)} / _{Ao}

V_{e} = ^{(24 / 6)} / _{2}

V_{e} = ^{4} / _{2}

V_{e} = 2

Therefore, the **entrance velocity **is **2.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the length of well screen.

To get the answer and workings of the length of well screen using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

To get access to the **professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Length of Well Screen**** **under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the length of well screen according to the respective parameters which are the **Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well (Q _{o}), Effective Open Area per Metre (A_{o})** and

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Maximum Expected Discharge Capacity of Well (Q _{o})** is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the length of well screen and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents hydrostatic pressure of a dam.

To compute for hydrostatic pressure of a dam, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Specific Weight of Water (γ) and Depth of water (h).**

The formula for calculating hydrostatic pressure of a dam:

H_{n} = ^{γh²} / _{2}

Where:

H_{n} = Hydrostatic Pressure of a Dam

γ = Specific Weight of Water

h = Depth of Water

Let’s solve an example;

Find the hydrostatic pressure of a dam when the specific weight of water is 10 and the depth of water is 5.

This implies that;

γ = Specific Weight of Water = 10

h = Depth of Water = 5

H_{n} = ^{γh²} / _{2}

H_{n} = ^{(10)(5)²} / _{2}

H_{n} = ^{10(25)} / _{2}

H_{n} = ^{250} / _{2}

H_{n} = 125

Therefore, the **hydrostatic pressure of the dam** is **125**.

**Calculating the Specific Weight of Water when the Hydrostatic Pressure of the Dam and the Depth of Water is Given.**

γ = ^{Hn x 2} / _{h2}

Where;

γ = Specific Weight of Water

H_{n} = Hydrostatic Pressure of a Dam

h = Depth of Water

Let’s solve an example;

Find the specific weight of water when the hydrostatic pressure of a dam is 30 and the depth of water is 6.

This implies that;

H_{n} = Hydrostatic Pressure of a Dam = 30

h = Depth of Water = 6

γ = ^{Hn x 2} / _{h2}

γ = ^{30 x 2} / _{62}

γ = ^{60} / _{36}

γ = 1.667

Therefore, the **specific weight of water **is** 1.667.**

**Calculating the Depth of Water when the Hydrostatic Pressure of the Dam and the Specific Weight of Water is Given.**

h = √^{Hn x 2} / _{γ}

Where;

h = Depth of Water

H_{n} = Hydrostatic Pressure of a Dam

γ = Specific Weight of Water

Let’s solve an example;

Find the depth of water when the hydrostatic pressure of a dam is 12 and the specific weight of water is 4.

This implies that;

H_{n} = Hydrostatic Pressure of a Dam = 12

γ = Specific Weight of Water = 4

h = √^{Hn x 2} / _{γ}

h = √^{12 x 2} / _{4}

h = √^{24} / _{4}

h = √6

h = 2.449

Therefore, the **depth of water **is **2.449.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the depth of water.

To get the answer and workings of the depth of water using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

To get access to the **professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Hydrostatic Pressure of a Dam** under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the hydrostatic pressure of a dam according to the respective parameters which are the **Specific Weight of Water (γ) and Depth of water (h).**

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Specific Weight of Water (γ)** is **10 **and** Depth of water (h)** is **5**.

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the hydrostatic pressure of a dam and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents entrance velocity.

To compute for entrance velocity, one essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Hydraulic Conductivity (k _{i}).**

The formula for calculating entrance velocity:

V_{e} = k_{i}

Where:

V_{e} = Entrance Velocity

k_{i} = Hydraulic Conductivity

Let’s solve an example;

Find the entrance velocity when the hydraulic conductivity is 8.\

This implies that;

k_{i} = Hydraulic Conductivity = 8

V_{e} = k_{i}

V_{e} = 8

Therefore, the **entrance velocity **is **8.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the entrance velocity.

To get the answer and workings of the entrance velocity using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

To get access to the **professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Entrance Velocity**** **under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the entrance velocity according to the respective parameters which are the **Hydraulic Conductivity (k _{i}).**

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Hydraulic Conductivity (k _{i})** is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the entrance velocity and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer.

To compute for storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer, five essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Unit Weight of Water (γ _{w}), Confined Aquifer Thickness (H), Compressibility of the Aquifer Material (α), Porosity of Aquifer Material (n) and Compressibility of Water (β).**

The formula for calculating storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer:

S = γ_{w}(α + nβ)H

Where;

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material

β = Compressibility of Water

Let’s solve an example;

Find the storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer when the unit weight of water is 8, confined aquifer thickness is 12, the compressibility of the aquifer material is 21, the porosity of aquifer material is 18 and the compressibiity of water is 14.

This implies that;

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water = 8

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness = 12

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material = 21

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material = 18

β = Compressibility of Water = 14

S = γ_{w}(α + nβ)H

S = 8(21 + 18(14))12

S = 8(21 + 252)12

S = 8(273)12

S = 26208

Therefore, the **storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer **is **26208.**

**Calculating the Unit Weight of Water when the Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer, the Confined Aquifer Thickness, the Compressibility of the Aquifer Material, the Porosity of Aquifer Material and the Compressibility of Water is Given.**

γ_{w} = ^{S} / _{(a + nβ)H}

Where;

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material

β = Compressibility of Water

Let’s solve an example;

Find the unit weight of water when the storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer is 20, the confined aquifer thickness is 10, the compressibility of the aquifer material is 8, the porosity of aquifer material is 3 and the compressibility of water is 4.

This implies that;

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer = 20

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness = 10

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material = 8

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material = 3

β = Compressibility of Water = 4

γ_{w} = ^{S} / _{(a + nβ)H}

γ_{w} = ^{20} / _{(8 + (3 x 4))10}

γ_{w} = ^{20} / _{(8 + 12)10}

γ_{w} = ^{20} / _{(20)10}

γ_{w} = ^{20} / _{200}

γ_{w} = 0.1

Therefore, the **unit weight of water **is **0.1.**

**Calculating the Confined Aquifer Thickness when the Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer, the Unit Weight of Water, the Compressibility of the Aquifer Material, the Porosity of Aquifer Material and the Compressibility of Water is Given.**

H = ^{S} / _{γw(a + nβ)}

Where;

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material

β = Compressibility of Water

Let’s solve an example;

Find the Confined Aquifer thickness when the storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer is 12, the unit weight of water is 8, the compressibility of the aquifer material is 7, the porosity of aquifer material is 14 and the compressibility of water is 9.

This implies that;

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer = 12

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water = 8

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material = 7

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material = 14

β = Compressibility of Water = 9

H = ^{S} / _{γw(a + nβ)}

H = ^{12} / _{8(7 + (14 x 9))}

H = ^{12} / _{8(7 + 126)}

H = ^{12} / _{8(133)}

H = ^{12} / _{1064}

H = 0.011

Therefore, the **confined aquifer thickness **is **0.011.**

**Calculating the Compressibility of the Aquifer Material when the Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer, Unit Weight of Water, Confined Aquifer Thickness, the Porosity of Aquifer Material and the Compressibility of Water is Given.**

α = (^{S} / _{γwH}) – nβ

Where;

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material

β = Compressibility of Water

Let’s solve an example;

Find the compressibility of the aquifer material when the storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer is 30, the unit weight of water is 10, the confined aquifer thickness is 5, the porosity of aquifer material is 5 and the compressibility of water is 2.

This implies that;

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer = 30

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water = 10

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness = 5

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material = 5

β = Compressibility of Water = 2

α = (^{S} / _{γwH}) – nβ

α = (^{30} / _{10 x 5}) – (5 x 2)

α = (^{30} / _{50}) – 10

α = 0.6 – 10

α = – 9.4

Therefore, the **compressibility of the aquifer material **is **– 9.4.**

**Calculating the Porosity of Aquifer Material when the Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer, the Unit Weight of Water, the Confined Aquifer Thickness, the Compressibility of the Aquifer Material and the Compressibility of Water is Given.**

n = ^{(S / γwH) – α} / _{β}

Where;

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material

β = Compressibility of Water

Let’s solve an example;

Find the porosity of aquifer material when the storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer is 30, the unit weight of water is 4, the confined aquifer thickness is 3, the compressibility of the aquifer material is 10 and the compressibility of water is 6.

This implies that;

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer = 30

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water = 4

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness = 3

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material = 10

β = Compressibility of Water = 6

n = ^{(S / γwH) – α} / _{β}

n = ^{(30 / 4 x 3) – 10} / _{6}

n = ^{(30 / 12) – 10} / _{6}

n = ^{2.5 – 10} / _{6}

n = ^{– 7.5} / _{6}

n = – 1.25

Therefore, the **porosity of aquifer material** is **– 1.25**.

**Calculating the Compressibility of Water when the Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer, the Unit Weight of Water, the Confined Aquifer Thickness, the Compressibility of the Aquifer Material and the Porosity of Aquifer Material is Given.**

β = ^{(S / γwH) – α} / _{n}

Where;

β = Compressibility of Water

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material

Let’s solve an example;

Find the compressibility of water when the storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer is 20, the unit weight of water is 12, the confined aquifer thickness is 2, the compressibility of the aquifer material is 6 and the porosity of aquifer material is 4.

This implies that;

S = Storage Co-efficient for a Confined Aquifer = 20

γ_{w} = Unit Weight of Water = 12

H = Confined Aquifer Thickness = 2

α = Compressibility of the Aquifer Material = 6

n = Porosity of Aquifer Material = 4

β = ^{(S / γwH) – α} / _{n}

β = ^{(20 / 12 x 2) – 6} / _{4}

β = ^{(20 / 24) – 6} / _{4}

β = ^{0.83 – 6} / _{4}

β = ^{– 5.16} / _{4}

β = – 1.291

Therefore, the **compressibility of water** is **– 1.291.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the storage co-efficient for a confined Aquifer.

To get the answer and workings of the storage co-efficient for a confined Aquifer using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Storage Co-efficient for a ****confined Aquifer**** **under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer according to the respective parameters which are the **Unit Weight of Water (γ _{w}), Confined Aquifer Thickness (H), Compressibility of the Aquifer Material (α), Porosity of Aquifer Material (n) and Compressibility of Water (β).**

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Unit Weight of Water (γ _{w})** is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the storage co-efficient for a confined aquifer and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents discharge current.

To compute for discharge current, five essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Hydraulic conductivity (k), Elevate from impermeable to surface (H), Depth of water in the well (h _{w}), Radius of influence (R)** and

The formula for calculating discharge current:

Q = ^{πk(H² – hw²)} / _{In[R/γw]}

Where:

Q = Discharge Current

k = Hydraulic Conductivity

H = Elevate from Impermeable to Surface

h_{w} = Depth of Water in the Well

R = Radius of Influence

γ_{w} = Radius of Well

Let’s solve an example;

Find the discharge current when the hydraulic conductivity is 10,the elevate from impermeable to surface is 4, the depth of water in the well is 20, the radius of influence is 5 and the radius of well is 10.

This implies that;

k = Hydraulic Conductivity = 10

H = Elevate from Impermeable to Surface = 4

h_{w} = Depth of Water in the Well = 20

R = Radius of Influence = 5

γ_{w} = Radius of Well = 10

Q = ^{πk(H² – hw²)} / _{In[R/γw]}

Q = ^{π}^{(10)[(4)² – (20)²]} / _{In[5/10]}

Q = ^{31.415[16 – 400]} / _{In[0.5]}

Q = ^{31.415[-384]} / _{-0.693}

Q = ^{-12063.7} / _{-0.69}

Q = 17404.26

Therefore, the **discharge current** is **17404.26**.

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the discharge current | Unconfined Aquifer.

To get the answer and workings of the discharge current | Unconfined Aquifer using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Discharge Current | Unconfined Aquifer**** **under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the discharge current | unconfined aquifer according to the respective parameters which are the **Hydraulic conductivity (k), Elevate from impermeable to surface (H), Depth of water in the well (h _{w}), Radius of influence (R)** and

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Hydraulic conductivity (k)** is **10**,** Elevate from impermeable to surface (H)** is **4**,** Depth of water in the well (h _{w})** is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the discharge current | unconfined aquifer and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents rate.

To compute for rate, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Rate of injection for salt solution (q), Concentration of salt solution (c _{1})** and

The formula for calculating rate:

Q = q(c_{1} – c_{2})

Where:

Q = Rate

q = Rate of Injection for Salt Solution or Trace

c_{1} = Concentration of Salt Solution or Trace

c_{2} = Concentration of River Downstream

Let’s solve an example;

Find the rate when the rate of injection for salt solution is 12, the concentration of salt solution is 20 and the concentration of river downstream is 18.

This implies that;

q = Rate of Injection for Salt Solution or Trace = 12

c_{1} = Concentration of Salt Solution or Trace = 20

c_{2} = Concentration of River Downstream = 18

Q = q(c_{1} – c_{2})

Q = 12(20 – 18)

Q = 12(2)

Q = 24

Therefore, the **rate** is **24**.

**Calculating the Rate of Injection for Salt Solution when the Rate, the Concentration of Salt Solution and the Concentration of River Downstream is Given.**

q = ^{Q} / _{(c1 – c2)}

Where;

q = Rate of Injection for Salt Solution or Trace

Q = Rate

c_{1} = Concentration of Salt Solution or Trace

c_{2} = Concentration of River Downstream

Let’s solve an example;

Find the rate of injection for salt solution when the rate is 40, the concentration of salt solution is 32 and the concentration of river downstream is 14.

This implies that;

Q = Rate = 40

c_{1} = Concentration of Salt Solution or Trace = 32

c_{2} = Concentration of River Downstream = 14

q = ^{Q} / _{(c1 – c2)}

q = ^{40} / _{(32 – 14)}

q = ^{40} / _{18}

q = 2.2

Therefore, the **rate of injection for salt solution **is **2.2.**

**Calculating the Concentration of Salt Solution when the Rate, the Rate of Injection for Salt Solution and the Concentration of River Downstream is Given.**

c_{1} = (^{Q} / _{q}) + c_{2}

Where;

c_{1} = Concentration of Salt Solution or Trace

Q = Rate

q = Rate of Injection for Salt Solution or Trace

c_{2} = Concentration of River Downstream

Let’s solve an example;

Given that the rate is 52, the rate of injection for salt solution is 22 and the concentration of river downstream is 10. Find the concentration of salt solution?

This implies that;

Q = Rate = 52

q = Rate of Injection for Salt Solution or Trace = 22

c_{2} = Concentration of River Downstream = 10

c_{1} = (^{Q} / _{q}) + c_{2}

c_{1} = (^{52} / _{22}) + 10

c_{1} = 2.36 + 10

c_{1} = 12.36

Therefore, the **concentration of salt solution** is **12.36.**

**Calculating the Concentration of River Downstream when the Rate, the Rate of Injection for Salt Solution and the Concentration of Salt Solution is Given.**

c_{2} = c_{1} – (^{Q} / _{q})

Where;

c_{2} = Concentration of River Downstream

Q = Rate

q = Rate of Injection for Salt Solution or Trace

c_{1} = Concentration of Salt Solution or Trace

Let’s solve an example;

Find the concentration of river downstream when the rate is 24, the rate of injection for salt solution is 12 and the concentration of salt solution is 8.

This implies that;

Q = Rate =24

q = Rate of Injection for Salt Solution or Trace = 12

c_{1} = Concentration of Salt Solution or Trace = 8

c_{2} = c_{1} – (^{Q} / _{q})

c_{2} = 8 – (^{24} / _{12})

c_{2} = 8 – 2

c_{2} = 6

Therefore, the **concentration of river downstream **is **6.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the rate | salt trace method.

To get the answer and workings of the rate | salt trace method using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Rate| Salt Trace Method**** **under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the rate | salt trace method according to the respective parameters which are the **Rate of injection for salt solution (q), Concentration of salt solution (c _{1}) and Concentration of river downstream (c_{2}).**

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Rate of injection for salt solution (q)** is **12**,** Concentration of salt solution (c _{1})** is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the rate | salt trace method and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents discharge | Chezy’s Equation.

To compute for discharge, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Area (A), Chezy’s Constant (C), Hydraulic Radius (R)** and** Slope (S).**

The formula for calculating discharge:

Q = AC√(RS)

Where;

Q = Discharge

A = Area

C = Chezy’s Constant

R = Hydraulic Radius

S = Slope

Let’s solve an example;

Find the discharge when the area is 25, the chezy’s constant is 16, the hydraulic radius is 9 and the slope is 21.

This implies that;

A = Area = 25

C = Chezy’s Constant = 16

R = Hydraulic Radius = 9

S = Slope = 21

Q = AC√(RS)

Q = (25)(16)√((9)(21))

Q = (25)(16)√(189)

Q = (25)(16)(13.74)

Q = 5499.09

Therefore, the **discharge** according to **Chezy’s equation** is **5499.09**.

**Calculating the Area when the Discharge, the Chezy’s Constant, the Hydraulic Radius and the Slope is Given.**

A = ^{Q} / _{C √RS}

Where;

A = Area

Q = Discharge

C = Chezy’s Constant

R = Hydraulic Radius

S = Slope

Let’s solve an example;

Find the area when the discharge is 40, the chezy’s constant is 10, the hydraulic radius is 5 and the slope is 9.

This implies that;

Q = Discharge = 40

C = Chezy’s Constant = 10

R = Hydraulic Radius = 5

S = Slope = 9

A = ^{Q} / _{C √RS}

A = ^{40} / _{10 √(5)(9)}

A = ^{40} / _{10 √45}

A = ^{40} / _{10 (6.708)}

A = ^{40} / _{67.08}

A = 0.596

Therefore, the **area **is **0.596.**

**Calculating the Chezy’s Constant when the Discharge, the Area, the Hydraulic Radius and the Slope is Given.**

C = ^{Q} / _{A √RS}

Where;

C = Chezy’s Constant

Q = Discharge

A = Area

R = Hydraulic Radius

S = Slope

Let’s solve an example;

Given that the discharge is 38, the area is 24, the hydraulic radius is 12 and the slope is 7. Find the Chezy’s Constant?

This implies that;

Q = Discharge = 38

A = Area = 24

R = Hydraulic Radius = 12

S = Slope = 7

C = ^{Q} / _{A √RS}

C = ^{38} / _{24 √(12)(7)}

C = ^{38} / _{24 √84}

C = ^{38} / _{24 (9.16)}

C = ^{38} / _{219.84}

C = 0.172

Therefore, the **chezy’s constant **is **0.172.**

**Calculating the Hydraulic Radius when the Discharge, the Area, the Chezy’s Constant and the Slope is Given.**

R = ^{(Q / AC)2} / _{S}

Where;

R = Hydraulic Radius

C = Chezy’s Constant

Q = Discharge

A = Area

S = Slope

Let’s solve an example;

Find the hydraulic radius when the chezy’s constant is 5, the discharge is 50, the area is 7 and the slope is 2.

This implies that;

C = Chezy’s Constant = 5

Q = Discharge = 50

A = Area = 7

S = Slope = 2

R = ^{(Q / AC)2} / _{S}

R = ^{(50 / 7 x 5)2} / _{2}

R = ^{(50 / 35)2} / _{2}

R = ^{(1.428)2} / _{2}

R = ^{2.04} / _{2}

R = 1.02

Therefore, the **hydraulic radius **is **1.02.**

**Calculating the Slope when the Discharge, the Area, the Chezy’s Constant and the Hydraulic Radius is Given.**

S = ^{(Q / AC)2} / _{R}

Where;

S = Slope

Q = Discharge

A = Area

C = Chezy’s Constant

R = Hydraulic Radius

Let’s solve an example;

Find the slope when the discharge is 80, the area is 10, the chezy’s constant is 4 and the hydraulic radius is 8.

This implies that;

Q = Discharge = 80

A = Area = 10

C = Chezy’s Constant = 4

R = Hydraulic Radius = 8

S = ^{(Q / AC)2} / _{R}

S = ^{(80 / 10 x 4)2} / _{8}

S = ^{(80 / 40)2} / _{8}

S = ^{(2)2} / _{8}

S = ^{4} / _{8}

S = 0.5

Therefore, the **slope **is **0.5.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the discharge | chezy’s equation.

To get the answer and workings of the discharge | chezy’s equation using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Discharge| Chezy’s Equation**** **under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the discharge | chezy’s equation according to the respective parameters which are the **Area (A), Chezy’s Constant (C), Hydraulic Radius (R)** and** Slope (S).**

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Area (A)** is **25**,** Chezy’s Constant (C)** is **16**,** Hydraulic Radius (R)** is **9 **and** Slope (S)** is **21**.

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the discharge | chezy’s equation and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents discharge | slope area method.

To compute for discharge | slope area method, four essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Manning’s Co-efficient (N), Area (A), Hydraulic Radius (R)** and** Slope (S).**

The formula for calculating discharge | slope area method:

Q = (^{A} / _{N}) R^{2/3} S^{1/2}

Where;

Q = Discharge

N = Manning’s Co-efficient

A = Area

R = Hydraulic Radius

S = Slope

Let’s solve an example;

Find the discharge when the manning’s co-efficient is 4, the area is 30, the hydraulic radius is 15 and the slope is 22.

This implies that;

N = Manning’s Co-efficient = 4

A = Area = 30

R = Hydraulic Radius = 15

S = Slope = 22

Q = (^{A} / _{N}) R^{2/3} S^{1/2}

Q = (^{30} / _{4}) (15)^{2/3} (22)^{1/2}

Q = (7.5) (6.08) (4.69)

Q = 213.96

Therefore, the **discharge** is **213.96.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the discharge | slope area method.

To get the answer and workings of the discharge | slope area method using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Discharge| Slope Area Method**** **under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the discharge | slope area method according to the respective parameters which are the **Manning’s Co-efficient (N), Area (A), Hydraulic Radius (R)** and** Slope (S).**

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Manning’s Co-efficient (N)** is **4**,** Area (A)** is **30**,** Hydraulic Radius (R)** is **15 **and** Slope (S)** is **22**.

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the discharge | slope area method and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents structure capacity.

To compute for structure capacity, three essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Entrance Factor (C), Crest Length (L)** and** Depth of Flow (H).**

The formula for calculating the structure capacity:

Q = CLH^{1.5}

Where:

Q = Structure Capacity

C = Entrance Factor

L = Crest Length

H = Depth of Flow

Let’s solve an example;

Find the structure capacity when the entrance factor is 6, the crest length is 10 and the depth of flow is 12.

This implies that;

C = Entrance Factor = 6

L = Crest Length = 10

H = Depth of Flow = 12

Q = CLH^{1.5}

Q = (6)(10)(12)^{1.5}

Q = (6)(10)(41.56)

Q = 2494.15

Therefore, the **structure capacity** is **2494.15.**

**Calculating the Entrance Factor when the Structure Capacity, the Crest Length and the Depth of Flow is Given.**

C = ^{Q} / _{LH1.5}

Where;

C = Entrance Factor

Q = Structure Capacity

L = Crest Length

H = Depth of Flow

Let’s solve an example;

Find the entrance factor when the structure capacity is 20, the crest length is 8 and the depth of flow is 4.

This implies that;

Q = Structure Capacity = 20

L = Crest Length = 8

H = Depth of Flow = 4

C = ^{Q} / _{LH1.5}

C = ^{20} / _{(8)(8)}

C = ^{20} / _{64}

C = 0.3125

Therefore, the **entrance factor **is **0.3125.**

**Calculating the Crest Length when the Structure Capacity, the Entrance Factor and the Depth of Flow is Given.**

L = ^{Q} / _{CH1.5}

Where;

L = Crest Length

C = Entrance Factor

Q = Structure Capacity

H = Depth of Flow

Let’s solve an example;

Find the crest length when the entrance factor is 10, the structure capacity is 30 and the depth of flow is 2.

This implies that;

C = Entrance Factor = 10

Q = Structure Capacity = 30

H = Depth of Flow = 2

L = ^{Q} / _{CH1.5}

L = ^{30} / _{(10)(21.5)}

L = ^{30} / _{(10)(2.82)}

L = ^{30} / _{28.2}

L = 1.06

Therefore, the **crest length **is **1.06.**

**Calculating the Depth of Flow when the Structure Capacity, the Entrance Factor and the Crest Length is Given.**

H = ^{1.5}√^{Q} / _{CL}

Where;

H = Depth of Flow

L = Crest Length

C = Entrance Factor

Q = Structure Capacity

Let’s solve an example;

Find the depth of flow when the structure capacity is 24, the entrance factor is 12 and the crest length is 10.

This implies that;

L = Crest Length = 10

C = Entrance Factor = 12

Q = Structure Capacity = 24

H = ^{1.5}√^{Q} / _{CL}

H = ^{1.5}√^{24} / _{(12)(10)}

H = ^{1.5}√^{24} / _{120}

H = ^{1.5}√0.2

H = 0.34

Therefore, the **depth of flow **is **0.34.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the structure capacity.

To get the answer and workings of the structure capacity using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Structure Capacity**** **under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the structure capacity according to the respective parameters which are the **Entrance Factor (C), Crest Length (L)** and** Depth of Flow (H).**

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Entrance Factor (C)** is **6**,** Crest Length (L)** is **10 **and** Depth of Flow (H)** is **12**.

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the structure capacity and presents the formula, workings and steps too.

The image above represents quantity of soil moved.

To compute for quantity of soil moved, two essential parameters are needed and these parameters are **Excess Wind Velocity (v _{w})** and

The formula for calculating quantity of soil moved:

Q = v_{w}³ . d_{p}

Where;

Q = Quantity of Soil Moved

v_{w} = Excess Wind Velocity

d_{p} = Particle Diameter

Let’s solve an example;

Find the quantity of soil moved when the excess wind velocity is 12 and the particle diameter is 20.

This implies that;

v_{w} = Excess Wind Velocity = 12

d_{p} = Particle Diameter = 20

Q = v_{w}³ . d_{p}

Q = (12)³ . (20)

Q = (1728) . (20)

Q = 34560

Therefore, the **quantity of soil moved **is **34560.**

**Calculating the Excess Wind Velocity when the Quantity of Soil Moved and the Particle Diameter is Given.**

v_{w}³ = ^{3}√^{Q} / _{dp}

Where;

v_{w} = Excess Wind Velocity

Q = Quantity of Soil Moved

d_{p} = Particle Diameter

Let’s solve an example;

Find the excess wind velocity when the quantity of soil moved is 30 and the particle diameter is 10.

This implies that;

Q = Quantity of Soil Moved = 30

d_{p} = Particle Diameter = 10

v_{w}³ = ^{3}√^{Q} / _{dp}

v_{w}³ = ^{3}√^{30} / _{10}

v_{w}³ = ^{3}√3

v_{w}³ = 1.442

Therefore, the **excess wind velocity **is **1.442.**

**Calculating the Particle Diameter when the Quantity of Soil Moved and the Excess Wind Velocity is Given.**

d_{p} = ^{Q} / _{vw³}

Where;

d_{p} = Particle Diameter

Q = Quantity of Soil Moved

v_{w} = Excess Wind Velocity

Let’s solve an example;

Find the particle diameter when the excess wind velocity is 5 and the quantity of soil moved is 40.

This implies that;

Q = Quantity of Soil Moved = 40

v_{w} = Excess Wind Velocity = 5

d_{p} = ^{Q} / _{vw³}

d_{p} = ^{40} / _{5³}

d_{p} = ^{40} / _{125}

d_{p} = 0.32

Therefore, the **particle diameter **is **0.32.**

Nickzom Calculator – **The Calculator Encyclopedia** is capable of calculating the quantity of soil moved.

To get the answer and workings of the quantity of soil moved using the **Nickzom Calculator – The Calculator Encyclopedia. **First, you need to obtain the app.

You can get this app via any of these means:

**Web** – https://www.nickzom.org/calculator-plus

**professional **version via web, you need to **register** and **subscribe **for** NGN 1,500 **per** annum** to have utter access to all functionalities.

You can also try the **demo **version via https://www.nickzom.org/calculator

**Android (Paid)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Android (Free)** – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nickzom.nickzomcalculator

**Apple (Paid)** – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/nickzom-calculator/id1331162702?mt=8

Once, you have obtained the calculator encyclopedia app, proceed to the **Calculator Map, **then click on **Agricultural **under **Engineering****.**

Now, Click on **Water Budget **under **Agricultural**

Now, Click on **Quantity of Soil Moved**** **under **Water Budget**

The screenshot below displays the page or activity to enter your values, to get the answer for the quantity of soil moved according to the respective parameters which are the **Excess Wind Velocity (v _{w})** and

Now, enter the values appropriately and accordingly for the parameters as required by the **Excess Wind Velocity (v _{w})** is

Finally, Click on Calculate

As you can see from the screenshot above, **Nickzom Calculator**– The Calculator Encyclopedia solves for the quantity of soil moved and presents the formula, workings and steps too.